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Map History / History of Cartography: THE Gateway to the Subject

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What the
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Map History


comprising literature since 1986 (and missed earlier publications)
as well as references for all the portolan chart webpages

Mounted on the web 7 March 2011 (and updated subsequently on a regular basis)

This prints out to over 90 pages

It would be marvellous to have a complete bibliography of the subject. Realistically, this is not going to happen. Portolan charts have been widely discussed for several centuries. The literature is vast. My own references from the 1980s must run to several thousand entries; there are more than 100 for the letter 'B' alone. So, to attempt what is possible, this listing started by restricting itself to the period after completion of work on my chapter in the History of Cartography (University of Chicago Press, 1987). This should not be seen as dismissive of earlier studies. Indeed, the majority of works cited in any publication today will probably (with good reason) prove to be much earlier than my starting date here.

However, because of my widening current interest in portolan chart toponymy across the two later centuries, this bibliography has expanded to include relevant earlier publications as well as those dealing with post-1501 place-names.

The listing may therefore seem unbalanced, since many major early works have been omitted. Nevertheless, it is true to its stated sub-purpose, namely to provide a single bibliography for this whole group of webpages.

I am very grateful to Enrique García Sánchez for alerting me to additional material and, particularly, to online versions of those and of other works.


{Update note 22 September 2016}

I wrote above, five years ago, that 'it would be marvellous to have a complete bibliography of the subject.' Well, it seems we now have one:

Enrique García Sánchez. Cartografía náutica medieval: Una síntesis bibliográfica (Academia.edu, 15 August 2016). [A major, very up to date, partially annotated, classified bibliography of the subject, spread over 105 pages. With its comprehensive coverage of both current and past works, it should, from now on, be considered the place to start any investigation. It is arranged in seven sections: 1. Obras generales (p.3); 2. Testimonios sobre cartografía náutica en fuentes medievales (p.44); 3.Cartas náuticas en obras literarias y geográfico-históricas (p.54); 4.Cartógrafos (p.60); 5. Cartas anónimas (p.84); 6. Los primeros portulanos escritos (p.98); and 7. Cartas islámicas (p.102); with numerous other sub-categories.]


For details of significant works published before 1986 see:

For a quick round-up of general titles see:
If you know of any other relevant references please notify

the editor of this page, Tony Campbell:  

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W-Z


This listing will not be comprehensive because I had not been systematically collecting bibliographical citations since 1986. However, it depends to a considerable extent on the annual Bibliography in Imago Mundi (compiled meticulously by Francis Herbert up to 2004, then by Nick Millea, until Wouter Bracke temporarily substituted (2010-12), and by Nick Millea thereafter), on the bibliography to Ramon Pujades's major work of 2007, on the listing in the online Bibliographia Cartographica, and to the references cited in a handful of other recent titles. For these reasons it is likely to have picked up most of the relevant literature. This is particularly true for the period from 1994 (vol. 46) when a Subject index was included in the Imago Mundi Bibliography [check 'Charts' and then, from 2000 onwards (i.e., vol. 52), 'Charts: Portolan']. The occasional quoted notes are taken from the Herbert and Millea commentaries. For the full analytical entries see the original text.

This listing concentrates on works dealing directly with the charts and their makers, on the regions covered by them, or on closely related matters, such as navigation and toponymy. The full Pujades bibliographies (2007, 2009) should certainly be consulted, especially for the large Catalan and Spanish literature on the subject. This applies particularly to the documentary work carried out by his countrymen, especially Gabriel Llabrés [19th century, see Pujades p.343], Gabriel Llompart and Jaume Riera. None of this is sufficiently well known in the English-speaking world.

The Pujades listing is also strong on works about such related themes as notarial inventories, mariners, travellers and itineraries, trade and economics, language and literacy, mathematics, and the role of the Jews.

For about 800 references to German literature on nautical charts, see Wolfgang Köberer, Bibliographie zur Geschichte der Navigation in deutscher Sprache. Bibliographien aus dem Deutschen Schiffahrtsmuseum, Band II. (Bremerhaven & Wiefelstede: Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum & Oceanum Verlag, 2011). [The online link is to a version updated with about 50 new entries, 'Nachträge und Ergänzungen', in 2018.]

Online texts
The literature is highly specialised and usually not in English. Little seems to be online, although some journals may be available on the web via subscribing libraries, and it is likely that some of these texts are, or will be, available via Google Books or other online text providers. This certainly applies to Imago Mundi: the International Journal for the History of Cartography. Any online publications and online conversions of earlier texts that have been noticed, are incorporated into the single listing below.

Subject indexing
Where publications are, or are assumed to be, about particular themes, regions, chartmakers or collections a reference has been added at the appropriate point in the update page to the 'Chapter' in the History of Cartography (1987). Likewise, works that refer to an individual chart are cross-referenced under the appropriate numbered entry in the update page to the 'Census' (1986).

Doctoral dissertations
Search for 'portolan' (or perhaps 'portulan') in the list of Doctorates in progress relating to the history of cartography to identify those currently working on some aspect of portolan chart history. The dissertation details of those who have completed their doctorates are included in the listing below.

I have not consulted many of the works listed below nor do I necessarily agree with the opinions expressed in those publications I have read.

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Anonymous works

XIV-XVIII yüzyil portolan ve deniz haritalan: Istanbul Topkapi Sarayi Müzesi ve Venedik Correr Müzesi koleksiyonlanudan / Portolani e carte nautiche XIV-XVIII secolo: dalle collezioni del Museo Correr, Venezia [&] Museo del Topkapi, Istanbul (Istanbul: Italyan Külür Merkezi, 1994). [An exhibition catalogue, in Turkish and Italian]. (Featuring material from Venice, Correr and Istanbul, Topkapi).

'L'Afrique dans les cartes majorquines (XIVe-XVe siècles). A propos d'un ouvrage récent', Le Moyen Age (1985): 93-6. [Evidently referring to Yoro K. Fall's L'Afrique à la naissance de la cartographie moderne: les cartes majorquines, XIVe-XVe siècles (Paris, 1982).]

[Atlas. Bulgarian lands in the European cartographic tradition (III-XIX centuries.] / Atlas. Blgarskite zemli v evropeyskata rartografska tradicia (III-XIX). Sofia: Tangra TanNakRa izdatelska kucsha ood, 2008. [In Bulgarian and English, including charts of the Black Sea from the National Library of Bulgaria.]

L'Atlas Català de Cresques Abraham (Barcelona: Diafora, 1975) - see under Llompart, 2005(b).

Biblioteca Estense (Modena). 2004. Antichi planisferi e portolani: Modena, Biblioteca estense universitaria. Scriptorium Tesori delle biblioteche italiane 3 (Modena: Il Bulino; Milan: Y. Press, 2004). [Facsimile, with commentary and list of place-names, of, among others, the Catalan Estense world map, with high resolution scans on a CD that can be acquired separately.]
    -- 2004. Collezione Portolani. Antiche carte nautiche della Biblioteca Estense Universitaria (Modena: Il Bulino, 2004).[Facsimiles with commentary - Census 93-5.].
    -- 2002. Portolani : antiche carte nautiche C.G.A.5.b, c, d della Biblioteca Estense universitaria, with commentary by Mauro Bini (Modena: Il Bulino, 2002-2003?).

Biblioteca Nacional de España. 'Cartas portulanas Las cartas portulanas, también llamadas cartas de navegación o cartas náuticas ...' (17 enlargeable Flickr photographs - samples from their collection of 16th century atlases and loose charts).

Bibliothèque nationale de France. 'Cartes et atlas-portulans conservés dans les collections publiques françaises [Document cartographique imprimé et manuscrit], [1290-1795 ca]'. There is a bibliography and brief project description of the continuing massive effort (2010-12) to catalogue all the approximately 600 portolan charts and atlases preserved in France (about 500 of them in the BnF; the rest in another 30 or so institutions) and place them on the Gallica website. See also 'Les cartes marines sur parchemin'
        For comments about access to the BnF's online scans see here.
    -- 'Ciel et Terre. L'Atlas Catalan' (online text and illustrations of the Catalan Atlas - Census 28; also select 'Portulans' for brief notes with low resolution illustrations of the Carte Pisane, Vesconte atlas (1313 ), Dulcert [Dulceti] chart (1339) and Viladesters chart (1413) - ['port1' to 'port4'; respectively Census nos 14, 25, 13, 11]).
    -- ‘Les mappemondes: une image médiévale du monde. Vision du monde’ (an online essay on mappaemundi and portolan charts, illustrated with enlargeable details).

Cartografia Mallorquina (Barcelona; Diputació de Barcelona, 1995). [Brief notes and illustrations of the 1468 Benincasa (Servera) and the undated Biblioteca Vivot charts (Census 129 & E14A), pp.14-17.]

Cornaro Atlas, a careful Wikipedia page (when consulted it had been last modified 9 September 2011).

Europeana. Portolan charts' (595 medium resolution images, as of September 2017)

Exposicion de cartografia mallorquina (Madrid: Servicio Geográfico del Ejército for Eurocarto VIII, 1990). [Mostly items from the Fund. Bartomeu March Servera for the meeting of the International Cartographic Association; featuring Census 129 (1468 Benincasa atlas)? and E.14(A)]

Guida generale degli archivi di stato italiani (Rome: Ministero per i Beni Culturali e Ambientali, 1981- ). [5 vols were originally planned.]

Hispanic Society of America. Cinco séculos de exploración (Fundacion Caixa Galicia, 2005). [An exhibition in Galicia of charts from the HSA - essentially an updating of Stevenson's 1911 catalogue, with colour reproductions].

An Historical Atlas of Islam - first edition by William C. Brice (Leiden: 1981); second edition (revised and enlarged) by Hugh Kennedy (Leiden: Brill, 2001). [Including transliterations of the names from the chart in al-Sharafi's 1571 atlas that covers the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco.]

Huntington Library, see under Dutschke.

Lexikon zur Geschichte der Kartographie: von den Anfängen bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg, ed. Ingrid Kretschmer, Johannes Dörflinger & Franz Wawrik. 2 vols (Vienna: Deuticke, 1986). [See, for example, 'Italienische Kartographie' [V. Valerio], 'Katalanisch-mallorcinische Kartographie' [L. Martín-Méras], 'Pisaner Karte' and 'Portolan' [I. Raynaud-Nguyen].

Library of Congress. 'Re-Examining the Portolan Chart: History, Navigation and Science' [235-minute webcast of the talks given by Evelyn Edson, Alison Sandman, Richard Pflederer, John Hessler and Fenella France, at the Library of Congress on 21 May 2010; requires RealPlayer].

Libro del conosçimiento de todos los rregnos et tierras et señorios que son por el mundo, et de las señales et armas que han (Zaragoza: Institución Fernando el Católico & Diputación Provincial de Zaragoza, 1999). [Facsimile edition with commentary by María Jesús Lacarra, María del Carmen Lacarra Ducay & Alberto Montaner.]

El libro del conoscimiento de todos los reinos = The Book of Knowledge of All Kingdoms, edited and translated by Nancy F. Marino (Tempe, 1999).

Medea-Chart. The Medieval and Early Modern Nautical Chart: Birth, Evolution and Use ["a research project on the History of Nautical Cartography, funded by the European Research Council. It was awarded to Dr Joaquim Alves Gaspar in September 2016, and will take place between September 2017 and August 2022 in the University of Lisbon – Faculty of Sciences." The interactive database contains digital images and information about medieval and early modern nautical charts from about 1250 onwards]. See 'Chart of the Week - brief bilingual notes in English and Portuguese, by Bruno Almeida, Šima Krtalić, Gregory McIntosh, et al..

Navigare e descrivere: isolari e portolani del Museo Correr (the introduction and objects list of an exhibition at the Museo Correr, Venice, 1 December 2001-1 April 2002 - only the 1318 Vesconte atlas was featured. Census 120).

I nomi di Rovigno nelle Carte e Portolani tra il XIV ed il XVII secolo. [Listing 17 variant forms for the name of the Croatian town, Grad Rovinj - by Virgilio Xoomer?]

Portolano per i naviganti ([Venice: Bernardino Rizo de Novaria, 1490] - choose TIFF or PDF format via 'Téléchargement de l'ouvrage' for the facsimile of the portolano text from the Bibliothèque nationale de France's "Gallica")

Portolans procedents de col.leccions espanyoles see under Rosselló i Verger (1995).

Ports and landing places at the Balkan coasts of the Byzantine Empire (4th-12th century). Monuments and technology, economy and communication - Project outline. [A collaborative project, evidently centred in Vienna, 2011 or later, covering the coastlines between Dalmatia and the Danube delta, i.e., the eastern Adriatic, Aegean and round to the western Black Sea, with a bibliography.]

Portugal Brazil: the Age of Atlantic Discoveries (Lisbon: Bertrand Editora; Milan: Franco Maria Ricci; New York: Brazilian Cultural Foundation, 1990). [Accompanying an exhibition at the New York Public Library, June-September 1990; reproducing the following: "Perrinus Vesconte c. 1325", an 'anonymus lender' p.33 (Census E.18); Catalan Atlas pp.34-5 (west section Census 28); 1492 Aguiar pp.38-9 (Census 146); a group after p.80: 1424 Pizzigano (Census 141); sheets from the 1463 & 1468 Benincasa atlases (Census 45 & 43); Soligo chart from the Cornaro Atlas (Census 52); 'c.1485' Reinel (Census 5).]

Project ANSER, 'ANciennes routeS maritimEs méditeRranéennes'. [An archaeological investigation of the ancient ports and anchorages of the western Mediterranean, which appears to have issued publications but may no longer [2011] be active.]

Das Seebuch. [An online facsimile, mounted by the Deutches Shiffahrtsmuseum, Bremerhaven, with translation into English and German, of the sailing directions for the Baltic and the Atlantic coasts of Europe, written c. 1470 but based on an original of the first half of the 14th century. Arranged in a series of geographical sequences, it adds information on tides, depths and descriptions of the seabed to what would be found in a normal portolano. On this see also Albrecht Sauer, Das Seebuch - the Oldest Northwest Sailing Directions: An Important Source for the History of Navigation and its New Online Edition, 2008.]

Świat Ptolemeusza - włoska kartografia renesansowa w zbiorach Biblioteki Narodowej Wystawa w stulecie urodzin Jana Zarmoyskiego (Warsaw: Biblioteka Narodowa, 2012). [Includes, pp.205-53 notes in Polish by Lucyna Szaniawska and full reproduction of the 1554 Freducci and 1583 Millo atlases.]

Terrae Cognitae. La cartografia delle collezioni sabaude. Catalogue of the exhibition in the Biblioteca Reale di Torino (19 November 2007 to 31 January 2008), edited by Maria Letizia Sebastiani & Clara Vitulo, with a portfolio of selected items (Census E.4).

Tesouros da cartografia portuguesa (Lisbon: Comissão Nacional para as Comemoraçôes dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, 1997), pp. 68-71, 118-19, nos.21-23. [Exhibition at the Instituto dos Arquivos / Torre do Tombo, July-August 1997 for the ICHC.] (Census 126, E.8(A), E.9(A), E.10(A)).

Venezia e la nuova 'oikoumene'. Cartografia del Quattrocento / Venedig und die neue 'Oikoumene'. Kartographie im 15. Jahrhundert, Ingrid Baumgärtner & Piero Falchetta (eds) (Rome, Venice: Centro Tedesco di Studi Veneziani, 2016).

[Update, 29 December 2017: There is now a brief and wholly indequate general entry for 'Portolan chart', last updated 19 September 2017. This needs to be replaced with a substantive and up-to-date entry. Any volunteers? The Italian version seems to be similar.]

When consulted on 9 September 2011, a number of entries on portolan charts and their makers were found (most of them recent). These can be best accessed via the subject heading Cartography, the List of Cartographers or such general headings as Majorcan Cartographic School . As usual with such unsigned articles, the reader must make up their own mind as to their quality. Most are brief - some no more than 'stubs' marking space for a future contribution. There seem to be at least two people involved. The main difference is that some entries refer to the latest research, by Ramon Pujades and this site, while others, in both their references and comments, look back to the 19th and first half of the 20th century.

Some of the shorter entries can be useful as pointers to online illustrations - an example is that for the Bodleian Library's Douce atlas:

Luis A. Robles Macias has pointed out other relevant Wikipedia entries (private communication 27 September 2018): In addition, there are at least two personal research sites on Wikipedia relating to portolan charts. One, written by 'Portolanero' [also here], includes historical and cartometric analyses of the Carte Pisane and the 1367 Pizigani chart, as well as investigating the 'problem of the portolan charts'.

The other, 'Walrasiad', offers a general History of the Portolan [i.e. portolan chart]. The article is clearly unfinished. It is a wide-ranging survey, including the most recent, thorough sources, although some of their more significant findings have not been appreciated. The same author has prepared a series of Wikipedia articles. See their User page under 'Cartography'. Some of the entries have the prefix 'adj', which I suspect refers to adjunta/adjunto, i.e. contributor, in the Portuguese that appears to be the author's native language. [Seen 25 October 2011.]

The unreferenced Maghreb placename etymology includes a small selection of Arabic words some of which appear in portolan chart names for North Africa [seen 26 December 2011].

Wind roses. ‘La rosa de los vientos en nuestros mapas’ (an analysis, in Spanish, of wind or compass roses found on nautical charts, with a number of examples - GIS & Beers, 27 January 2018)

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Authored works

Abulafia, David. The Great Sea: a Human History of the Mediterranean (Oxford University Press, 2011)

Aczel, Amir D. The Riddle of the Compass (San Diego; New York: Harcourt Books, 2001). [Also: L'enigma della bussola: l'invenzione che ha cambiato il mondo (Milan, 2005.]

Aggeev, Fedor Mihajlovic. 2016. Origin of portulans and accurate ancient maps ([Moscow]: State University of Land Use Planning, 2016). [53 pages.]
    -- 2013. Anticnaâ geodeziâ i proishoždenie portulanov [Antique geodesy and the origin of portolan maps] (Moscow, 2013).

Agnarsdóttir, Anna (ed.). 'Voyages and Exploration in the North Atlantic from the Middle Ages to the XVIIth Century', Papers Presented at the 19th International Congress of Historical Sciences, Oslo 2000 (Institute of History, University of Iceland, 2000).

Aguilar, Maravillas Aguiar. La navegación en el Atlántico sur en la Baja Edad Media: a propósito de Canarias y la entrada Uqiyanus del Kitab al-raw? al- mi‘?ar fi jabar al- aq?ar de Ibn‘Abd al-Mun‘im al-?imyari (m.900/1494), in: Mohamed Meouak & Cristina de la Puente (eds), Vivir de tal suerte. Homenaje a Juan Antonio Souto Lasala (Córdoba: Cordoba Near Eastern Research Unit – Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas – Oriens Academic, 2014), pp.31-46.

Albuquerque, Luis de. 2001. Introdução à História dos Descobrimentos Portugueses. 5th edition (Lisbon: Europa-América, 2001).
    -- 1991. Dúvidas e Certezas na História dos Descobrimentos Portugueses. 2 vols (Lisbon: Vega, 1991).
    -- 1990. 'Observations on the portulan-chart', Mare Liberum 1 (1990):117-29.
    -- 1989. A náutica e a ciência náutica em Portugal: Notas sobre as navegaçoes (Lisbon, 1989).
    -- 1984. 'Consideraçoes sobre a carta-portulano', Revista da Universidade de Coimbra 31 (1984 [i.e. 1985]): 385-404.

Albuquerque, Luís de & Francisco Contente Domingues. Dicionário de História dos Descobrimentos Portugueses. 2 vols (Lisboa: Caminho, 1994).

Alegria, Maria Fernanda, Suzanne Daveau, João Carlos Garcia & Fancesc Relaño. 'Portuguese cartography in the Renaissance', in: David Woodward (ed.) The History of Cartography. Volume 3. Cartography in the European Renaissance (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 2007), Part 1, pp.975-1068 [see pp. 983-7 on early Portuguese charts].

Alegria, Maria Fernanda, João Carlos Garcia & Fancesc Relaño. ‘Cartografia e Viagens’, in: Kirti Chaudhuri & Francisco Bethencourt (eds) História da Expansão Portuguesa (Lisbon: Temas e Debates, 1999), Vol.1, pp.27-61.

Alegria, Maria Fernanda & João Carlos Garcia. 'Etapas de evolução da cartografia portuguesa (séculos XV a XIX)', in: La cartografia de la Península Ibèrica i la sera extensió al continent Americà (Barcelona, 1991) pp.225-43.

Alexander, James. 'Loxodromes: A rhumb way to go', Mathematics Magazine, 77:5 (December 2004): 349-56.

Alexander, Jonathan, J.G. Medieval illuminators and their methods of work (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1992).

Alfieri, Nereo. 1987. 'I porti delle Marche nei portolani e nelle carte nautiche medievali', in: Le strade delle Marche: Il problema del tempo (Ancona, 1987) pp.669-97.
    -- 1986. 'Il promontorio di Focara nei portolani e nelle carte nautiche medievali', in: Gabicce: Un paese sull'Adriatico tra Marche e Romagna (Gabicce, 1986) pp.235-63.

Allotta di Belmonte, Gaetano. 'Portolani, caricatori e porti del litorale agrigentino', in: I porti del litorale agrigentino: ieri, oggi, domani (Agrigento: Azienda speciale per lo sviluppo dei porti della provincia di Agrigento, 1999).

Almagià, Roberto. Monumenta cartographica Vaticana. 4 vols (Rome: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1944-55). [Vol.1 pp.25- compares the names along the Black Sea coast and around Asia Minor to Libya on the 1339 Dulcert [Dulceti], British Library 25691, Catalan Atlas, 1385 Soler and 1413 Viladestes (Census 13, 48, 28, 66 & 11).]

Almeida, Bruno. 2022. A Carta de Navegar: Antologia de Textos (1464-1599) (Lisbon: Althum. com, 2022).
    -- 2020. 'Famous charts and forgotten fragments: exploring correlations in early Portuguese nautical cartography', International Journal of Cartography, 2 March 2020. [Studying the relationship between early 16th century Portuguese charts in Dijon, Lisbon, Kunstmann III, and including comparison of their toponymy (plus that of the Cantino) between Marseilles and Rome.]

Alves Gaspar, Joaquim. See under Gaspar

Amaral, Joaquim Ferreira do. Pedro Reinel me fez: à volta de um mapa dos descobrimentos (Lisbon: Quetzal Editores, 1995).

Andrade, Rui Silvestre de. 2016. Doações reais de ilhas imaginárias. A sua representação cartográfica no mare oceanum (Universidade de Lisboa Faculdade de Letras, 30 June 2016). [About the mythical Atlantic islands north of the Canaries.]
    -- 2014. 'The Pizzigano´s nautical chart of 1424. Controvérsia sobre mitos e realidade de um portolano quatrocentista'. Conference: Jornadas do Mar 2014. Escola Naval, Lisboa, 2014. [A revisiting of Armando Cortesão's 1953 Imago Mundi article - Census 141.]

Andrews, Michael C. 'The boundary between Scotland and England in the Portolan charts', Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 60 (1925-6): 36-66). [32-page pdf file of the influential early article].

Apellániz, Francisco. 'Venetian Trading Networks in the Medieval Mediterranean', Journal of Interdisciplinary History XLIV:2 (Autumn 2013): 157-79.

Arbel, Benjamin. 2017. ‘Daily Life on Board Venetian Ships: The Evidence of Renaissance Travelogues and Diaries’, in: Gherardo Ortalli & Alessio Sopracasa (eds) Istituto veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti. Rapporti mediterranei, pratiche documentarie, presenze veneziane: le reti economiche e culturali (XIV - XVI secolo) (Venice, 2017), pp. 183-[220]. [Evidently no discussion of navigation.]
    -- 2014. 'The Book of Michael of Rhodes: a fifteenth century maritime manuscript', Mediterranean Historical Review 29:2 (2014): 186-94.

Arévalo, Raúl González. 2015. 'Italian Renaissance Diplomacy and Commerce with Western Mediterranean Islam: Venice, Florence, and the Kingdom of Granada in the Fifteenth Century', in: I Tatti Studies in the Italian Renaissance, volume 18, number 1 (2015), pp.215-32.
    -- 2010. 'La costa del Reino de Sevilla en la documentación náutica italiana (siglo XV)', in: Antonio Malpica, et al. (eds) Historia de Andalucia. VII Coloquio (Granada, 2010), pp.301-17.

Arioli, Angelo. Isolario arabo medioevale (Milan: Adelphi, 2015).

Armao, Ermanno. 'Nomi antichi e moderni delle isole del Mar Egeo', Rivista Geografica Italiana 54 (1947): 250-57.

Armienti, Pietro & Angela M. Venger. 'A Middle Age Qibla Finder and the secret code of Portolan maps', Journal of Cultural Heritage, 29 (January-February, 2018): 137-44. [The re-interpretation of a supposed medieval hanging lantern as a "mathematical tool to find the Qibla ... the missing piece of the puzzle that enables us to interpret middle age Portolan maps as based on the azimuthal equidistant projection scheme of al-Biruni".]

Armignacco, Vera. 'Una carta nautica della Biblioteca dell'Accademia Etrusca di Cortona', Rivista Geografica Italiana 64 (1957): 185-223. [Discussing the Cortona chart (Census 62) and comparing its toponymy with that of the Carte Pisane, and with the Carignano chart and the 1325 [=1330] Dalorto/Dulcert [Dulceti] for the Black Sea - Census 14, 65 & 166.]

Arnaud, Pascal. 2014. 'Ancient Mariners Between Experience and Common Sense Geography', in: Klaus Geus & Martin Thiering (eds.) Features of common sense geography: Implicit knowledge structures in ancient geographical Texts (Münster et al.: LIT Verlag, 2014) pp.39-68.
    -- 2011. 'Ancient sailing-routes and trade patterns: the impact of human factors', in: Damian Robinson and Andrew Wilson (eds), Maritime Archaeology and Ancient Trade in the Mediterranean. Oxford Centre for Maritime Archaeology Monograph 6. (Oxford Centre for Maritime Archaeology, 2011). [Including a section, 'Ships, harbours, sailors and traders — the social division of maritime trade and its limits' (pp.73-5).]
    -- 2005. Les routes de la navigation antique. Itinéraires en Méditerranée (Paris: Editions Errance, 2005). [The whole 248-page book, on eight PDFs. For the Contents page select the last PDF (and go to the end); much is relevant for the Medieval period, see for example 'Absence des cartes' (p.46) and 'Naviguer sans carte ni instrument' (p.50).]
    -- 1996. 'Images et représentations dans la cartographie du bas Moyen Âge, in: Spazi, tempi, misure e percorsi nell'Europa del basso medioevo. Atti del XXXII convegno storico internazionale (Todi, 8-11 ottobre 1995 - organised by the Centro italiano di studi sul basso medioevo - Accademia Tudertina) (Spoleto, 1996) pp. 129-53.
    -- 1993. 'De la durée à la distance. L'évaluation des distances maritimes dans le monde gréco-romain', Histoire et mesure 8 (1993): 225-47.
    -- 1984. ‘Les villes des cartographes: vignettes urbaines et réseaux urbains dans les mappemondes de l’Occident médiéval’, Mélanges de l'Ecole française de Rome. Moyen-Age, Temps modernes 96 (1984):537-602.
    -- for various articles on ancient navigation see his Academia page.

Ascari, M.C. 'La cartografia nautica della Corsica', Archivio Storico di Corsica (1940-1): 121-46, 1-31.

Ash, Eric H. 'Navigation techniques and practice in the Renaissance', in: David Woodward (ed.) The History of Cartography. Volume 3. Cartography in the European Renaissance (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 2007), Part 1, pp. 509-27.

Astengo, Corradino. 2007(a). 'The Renaissance chart tradition in the Mediterranean', in: David Woodward (ed.) The History of Cartography. Volume 3. Cartography in the European Renaissance (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 2007), Part 1, pp. 174-262 [Of considerable relevance for the earlier period, particularly regarding production techniques, workshop arrangements, etc., and including 'Appendix 7.1. Charts of the Mediterranean in public collections, 1500-1700' (pp.238-61, listing over 650 works - an amended update of the 1996 & 2000 listings).]
    -- 2007(b). 'La cartografia nautica medievale. Problemi vecchi e nuove ricerche', Mundus Novus (Genoa, 2007), pp. 211-24.
    -- 2005. 'Tradition et innovation dans la cartographie nautique manuscrite: l'atlas Rés Ge EE 5610 de la Bibliothèque nationale de France', in 'Cartographier la mer'. Le Monde des Cartes. Revue du Comité français de Cartographie 184 (June 2005): 23-30. [About an Italian atlas from the second half of the 16th century which was one of the first to try to correct the Mediterranean 'tilt'.]
    -- 2003. 'Una carta da navigare del 1567', Itineraria 2 (2003): 289-303. [Comparing the toponymy of two charts by Giacomo Maggiolo: a 'normal' one of 1561 and a large-scale one of 1567, between Nice and Rome (C. d'Anzio), as well as Corsica, Sardinia, etc..]
    -- 2000(a). La cartografia nautica mediterranea dei secoli XVI e XVII (Genoa: Erga, 2000). [See 'La toponomastica' (pp.69-75) and the extensive bibliography on later charts (pp.193-221); including a revised and enlarged version of the census in Astengo (1990a); itself superseded by Astengo (2007) pp. 238-61.]
    -- 2000(b). Il Libro della Conoscenza di tutti i regni paesi e signorie che isistone nel mondo... (Genoa: Erga edizioni, 2000). [An introduction, translation (from Spanish into Italian) and commentary on the 14th-century Libro del conoscimiento. Pages 119-41 comprise an alphabetical list of the place-names referred to in the Libro, with their modern equivalents.]
    -- 1996 (a). Elenco preliminare di carte ed atlanti nautici manoscritti. Eseguiti nell'area Mediterranea nel periodo 1500-1700 e conservati presso enti pubblici (Genoa: Istituto di Geografia, Università di Genova, 1996). [Superseded by Astengo (2000a & 2007).]
    -- 1996 (b). 'Der genuesische Kartograph Vesconte Maggiolo und sein Werk', Cartographica Helvetica 13-14 (1996): 9-17.
    -- 1995. 'L'asse del Mediterraneo nella cartografia nautica dei secoli XV e XVI', Studi e richerche di geografia 18, 2 (1995): 213-37.
    -- 1994. 'La fabbricazione di carte ed atlanti nautici', Studi e ricerche di geografia, 17,2 (1994): 153-72.
    -- 1990(a). 'Elenco di carte nautiche e atlanti nautici medievali di autore genovese', Annali di recerche e studi di geografia 46 (1990): 1-28. [Superseded by Astengo (2007) pp. 238-61.]
    -- 1990(b). 'La cartografia nautica mediterranea', in: M. Milanesi (ed.), L'Europa delle carte (Milan, 1990) pp.21-5
    -- 1990(c). 'La produzione cartografica dei Benincasa e una carta nautica anonima conservata nella Biblioteca Reale di Torino', Bollettino della Società Geografica Italiana XI, 7 [nos 4-6?] (1990): 223-30, especially pp.228-30. (On the Benincasa family, suggesting that an anonymous chart in the Biblioteca Reale, Turin might by G. Benincasa or Freducci - Census E.4; on which see the Benincasa page under 'Successors and imitators' and the accompanying Microsoft Word Tables).

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Babcock, William H. Legendary islands of Atlantic: a study in medieval geography (New York: American Geographical Society, 1922).

Bacci, Michele. 'Portolano sacro. Santuari e immagini sacre lungo le rotte di navigazione del Mediterraneo tra tardo Medioevo e prima età moderna', in: Erik Thunø & Gerhand Wolf (eds), The miraculous image in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance. [Papers from a conference held at the Accademia di Danimarca in collaboration with the Bibliotheca Hertziana (Max-Planck-Institut für Kunstgeschichte) Rome, 31 May-2 June 2003] (Rome: 'L'Erma' di Bretschneider, 2004) pp.223-48. [About the 'sante parole', a litany forming a 'virtual' toponymy of saints' names, to be invoked when the ship was at the relevant section of the Mediterranean coast, particularly from the 14th and 15th centuries. See pp.242- for a list and accompanying map. I owe this reference to Ramon Pujades. See also Ruzzin, 2013].

Bacci, Michele & Martin Rohde (eds). The holy portolano. The sacred geography of navigation in the Middle Ages / Le portulan sacré. La géographie religieuse de la navigation au Moyen Âge. Fribourg Colloquium 2013 (De Gruyter, 2014). [The contents list can be found in the contribution of David Jacoby.]

Baig i Aleu, Maria. 'Un nuevo documento sobre Guillem Soler y la cuestión de la cartografia mallorquina', Llull 24 (2001): 587-603.

Balard, Michel. 2006. La Méditerranée médiévale. Espaces, itinéraires, comptoirs (Paris, Picard, 2006).
    -- 1994. 'Les républiques maritimes italiennes et le commerce en Syrie-Palestine (X1e-XIIIe siècles)', Anuario de Estudios Medievales 24 (1994): 313-48.
    -- 1988. ‘Navigations génoises en Orient d’après les livres de bord du XIVe siècle’, in Comptes-rendus de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, 132.4 (Nov–Dec. 1988), 781–93. [From 1150 onwards each Genoese vessel had to carry a scribe who documented all agreements.]
    -- 1978. La mer Noire et la Romanie génoise. XIIIe-XVe siècles. 2 vols. (École française de Rome & Genoa, 1978). [Also (?) forming Vol. XVIII of Atti della Società Ligure di Storia Patria - is this the same as La Romanie génoise, XIIe-début du XVe siècle,, Vol. 1 (Paris, 1978)?] [Reprint: London: Variorum, 1989.]

Balbi, see Petti Balbi

Baldacci, Osvaldo. 2001. Dante lettore di geocarte e portolani (Rome: Accademia nazionale dei Lincei, 2001). [Dante lived c. 1265-1321.]
    -- 1993. Atlante colombiano della grande scoperta (Rome: Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca delle Stato, 1993).
    -- 1990. Documenti geocartografici nelle biblioteche e negli archivi privati e pubblici della Toscana. 3. Introduzione allo studi delle geocarte nautiche di tipo medievale e la raccolta della Biblioteca comunale di Siena (Florence: Olschki, 1990). ['Appendice Toponomastica', pp.133-93, giving the complete toponymic coverage from the 1430 Briaticho chart (Census 109), 1542 Roccho Dalolmo, 1553 & 1599 Prunes. Unfortunately the four columns are not matched up and there are no modern identifications.]
    -- 1982. 'La Sardegna nella cartonautica toscana del Seicento', in: Scritti geografici in onore di Aldo Sestini (Florence: Società di Studi Geografici, 1982) pp.31-52.
    -- 1944. 'Lo studio dei nomi regionali in Italia', Rivista geografica italiana 51 [fasc. i-iii?] (1944): 1-15 ?

Balestracci, Duccio. Terre ignote strana gente. Storie di viaggiatori medievali (Rome, Bari: Laterza, 2008).

Balletti, Caterina. 2016. 'Gli strumenti informatici al servizio della ricerca storica: il caso della cartografia veneziana del XV secolo', in: Ingrid Baumgärtner & Piero Falchetta (eds), Venezia e la nuova 'oikoumene'. Cartografia del Quattrocento / Venedig und die neue 'Oikoumene'. Kartographie im 15. Jahrhundert (Rome, Venice: Centro Tedesco di Studi Veneziani, 2016), pp. 157-74 ?).
    -- 2006. 'Georeference in the analysis of the geometric content of early maps', e-Perimetron, 1,1 (2006), pp. 32-9.
    -- 2000. 'Metodi analitici e quantitative per lo studio del contenuto geometrico delle carte storiche', 2000 [doctoral thesis on geodetic and topographical science in the 13th century, Politecnico, Milan].

Balletti, Caterina & Chryssoula Boutoura. 'Revisiting the projective properties of historic nautical maps of the Mediterranean and the Aegean', in: Mapping the 21st century. Proceedings of the 20th International Cartographic Conference, vol. 1 (Beijing: State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping, 2001), pp. 296-302.

Balletti, Caterina, Renato Gibin, Caterina Gottardi & Evangelos Livieratos. 'Preliminary numerical investigations on the "Liber de Existencia Riveriarum et Forma Maris Nostri Mediterranei'. Proceedings of the 12th ICA Conference on Digital Approaches to Cartographic Heritage, Venice 26-28 April 2017. Also, with the same title, in e-Perimetron, 16:1 (2021), pp.15-26.

Banfi, Florio. 'Two Italian maps of the Balkan Peninsula', Imago Mundi 11 (1954): 17-34. [Compares (p.31-4) the names between Venice and the Black Sea, on the Dalorto and 1471 Benincasa, with Martellus, Rosselli [i.e. Francesco, not the chartmaker] and Waldseemüller. NB. these lists are highly selective and should be used with caution.]

Bär, Werner-Francisco. Das Kartenbild der Insel Mallorca vom Ende des 15. Jhs. bis um 1700 : ein Vergleich aus kartographischer Sicht (Frankfurt am Main : Frankfurter Geographische Gesellschaft, 2004). [A Spanish edition: La Imagen Cartográfica de la isla de Mallorca (siglos XVI y XVII): un estudio comparativo (Palma, Majorca: Miquel Font, Col.lecció Alicorn, 2009).]

Barba Beltrán, Laura & Ascensión López Vázquez. 'Viajar por el Mediterráneo, Viajar por el Atlántico. Los periplos de González de Clavijo (1403-1406) y Francisco de Soto y Marne (1752)' in: Alberto Gullón Abao, et al. (eds) El mar en la Historia y en la Cultura (Universidad de Cádiz, 2013) pp.249-64. [Clavijo travelled from Cadiz to Samarkand; see first page for full title of the work [published in 1582] and p.252 for a map of the route.]

Barber, Peter & Michelle P. Brown. 'The Aslake World Map', Imago Mundi 44, (1992): 24-44. [Fragments of a world map from c. 1350-1400, which incorporates information from a portolan chart].

Barbosa, António. Novos subsídios para a história da ciência náutica portuguesa da época dos descobrimentos (Porto: Instituto para a Alta Cultura, 1949).

Barritt, Captain Michael, R.N. see Campbell 2020

Bartlett, Robert. The Making of Europe: Conquest, Civilization and cultural Change, 950-1350 (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1994).

Baso, G. & M. Scarso. 'Spazi imaginari e ordine geografico: Il mare Egeo tra portolani, carte nautiche e isolari', in: E. Livieratos (ed.), Raggi di venti sul mare (Thessaloniki: National Centre for Maps and Cartographic Heritage, 2000), pp. 53-63.

Baumgärtner, Ingrid. 2017. Der Portulan-Atlas des Battista Agnese. Das Kasseler Prachtexemplar von 1542 (Darmstadt: WBG (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft), 2017). [Including a full reproduction of the atlas and an appendix with a full list of Agnese's output.]
    -- 2016. 'Battista Agnese e l'atlante di Kassel. La cartografia del mondo nel Cinquecento', in: Ingrid Baumgärtner & Piero Falchetta (eds), Venezia e la nuova 'oikoumene'. Cartografia del Quattrocento / Venedig und die neue 'Oikoumene'. Kartographie im 15. Jahrhundert (Rome, Venice: Centro Tedesco di Studi Veneziani, 2016), pp. 245-70 (?).

Bausi, Alessandro & Paolo Chiesa, 'The Ystoria Ethyopie in the Cronica Universalis of Galvaneus de la Flamma (d. c.1345)', Aethiopica, (International Journal of Ethiopian and Eritrean Studies) 22 (2019): 7–57. [Discussing the section about Ethiopia, based on the lost 'Tractatus de mappa' of Giovanni da Carignano.]

Belke, Klaus. 'Die Küsten von Hellespont und Bithynien im Spiegel der Portuland und Portulankarten', in B. Takmer et al. (eds), Vir Doctus Anatolicus. Studies in memory of Sencer Sahin (Istanbul, 2016), pp.157-89. [See also a detailed historical map: Sonderkarte Bosporus / Goldenes Horn.]

Bellio, Vittorio. 'Il periplo della Sicilia nel Medio Evo tratto da carte geografiche manoscritte delle biblioteche del Veneto', Archivio Storico Siciliano NS 8 (1882): 22-49. [Compares names for Sicily from 37 works.]

Bellomo, Elena. 'Sapere nautico e geografia sacra nella radici dei portolani medievali (secoli XII-XIII)', Quaderni di storia religiosa 15 (2008): 215-241.

Benedetti, Roberto. 'L'Atlante Vesconte di Zurigo. Raffronto con i mss. Venezia, BMC, port. 28 e Lyon, BM, 175', Bollettino dei Civici Musei Veneziani d'Arte e di Storia (1991), 35, nos 1-4, pp.5-17. (Census 131, compared with 120 & 7).

Beshevliev, Boyan [Beševliev, Bojan]. 1994. 'The representation of Thessaloniki on maps from ancient times to the 15th Century', in: The cartography of the shores and islands of Greece: Proceedings of the IMCoS Seventh International Symposium, Athens 6-8 October 1989 (Athens: Olkos, 1994), pp. 75-86.
    -- 1988. 'Die italienische und osmanische Seekartographie der Westküste des Schwarzen Meeres bis 18. Jh.', Bulgaria Pontica II, Nessebre 26-30 mai 1982' (Sofiya: 1988) [includes a table of toponyms for the Black Sea's west coast].

Bevilacqua, Eugenia. Le Immagini dell’ Isola di Creta nella Cartografia Storica raccolte e illustrate da Antonio Ratti (Venice: Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 1997), pp. 25-37, 39-51.
Biadene, Susanna & Camillo Tonini. 'Viaggio attraverso le pianure liquide: La collezione di portolani e carte nautiche del Museo Correr di Venezia', in: E. Livieratos (ed.), Raggi di venti sul mare (Thessaloniki: National Centre for Maps and Cartographic Heritage, 2000), pp. 25-31. (Census 118-121a).

Biadene, Susanna see also under Tucci

Bigliazzi, Luciana & Aldemaro Giannozzi. Uomini, bestie e paesi nelle miniature laurenziane [catalogue] (Florence: Biblioteca Laurenziana, 1987). (Census 75-77? [not seen]).

Billion, Philipp. 2013. 'How did medieval cartographers work?: New insights through a systematic analysis of the visual language of medieval portolan charts up to 1439' Cartes et géomatique, 216 (June, 2013): 33-45 (paper delivered at the international conference, 'D'une technique à une culture: les cartes marines du XIIIe au XVIIIe siècle', Paris 3 December 2012).
    -- 2012. 'Die Funcktion von Herrschaftszeichen auf mittelalterlichen Portolankarten', in: Ingrid Baumgärtner & Martina Stercken (eds), Herrschaft verorten: Politische Kartographie im Mittelalter und in der frühen Neuzeit. Medienwandel – Medienwechsel – Medienwissen 19 (Zurich: Chronos, 2012), pp. 229-52.
    -- 2011(a). Graphische Zeichen auf mittelalterlichen Portolankarten - Ursprünge, Produktion und Rezeption bis 1440 [The visual language of Medieval Portolan Charts - Origin, Production and Reception before 1440] (Marburg: Tectum Verlag, 2011).
    -- 2011(b).
'A newly discovered fragment from the Lucca Archives, Italy', Imago Mundi: the International Journal for the History of Cartography 63: 1 (2011): 1-21 & coloured plates 1-2. [About the Lucca chart.]
    -- 2008. Doctoral dissertation, Universität Kassel, October 2008. 'Graphische Zeichen auf mittelalterlichen Portolankarten: Ursprünge, Produktion und Rezeption bis 1440' [Graphical signs on medieval portolan charts: origin, production and reception up to 1440].

Bini, Mauro see under Biblioteca Estense, Modena (above).

Biondi, Mario Vinicio. 'Il Portolano di Grazioso Benincasa', in: Ancona e il suo mare : norme, patti e usi di navigazione nei secoli XIV e XV, 2 vols (Recanati: Tecnostampa, 1998). [The full text of the portolano of 1435-45, accompanied by a reproduction of the original MS in the Ancona archives.]

Blackler, Andrew. 2017. 'Mapping Frankish Euboea: Tracing the depiction of the island through the portolan charts and early maps from the 13th to 17th century', in: Žarko Tankosic, Fanis Mavridis, and Maria Kosma (eds) An Island between two Worlds: the Archaeology of Euboea from Prehistoric to Byzantine Times. Proceedings of the International Conference, Eretria, 12-14 July 2013. Papers and Monographs from the Norwegian Institute at Athens, Volume 6. (Athens: Norwegian Institute, 2017), pp.653-61.
    -- 2016. ’Conference Review – First International Workshop on the Origin and Evolution of Portolan Charts - Lisbon, June 2016’, e-Perimetron, 12:1 (2017): 37-9.

Blot, M.L.P. and Alves, J.G., 'Représentations cartographiques et iconographiques des principaux ports de l'Algarve post-mediéval. Les Premières experiences archéologiques de sites portuaires dans la territoire portugais', in: Lorenza De Maria and Rita Turchetti (eds) Rotte e porti del Mediterraneo dopo la caduta dell'Impero romano d'Occidente: continuità e innovazioni tecnologiche e funzionali: IV seminario: Genova, 18-19 giugno 2004 (Rubbettino, 2004), pp.189-216.

Bocchi, Andrea. 'Per peleio e per estarea. Su una recente edizione del Compasso de navegare', Lingua e Stile 46 (2011): 267-98. [A review essay of Alessandra Debanne's edition of 'Lo Compasso', including corrections to modern identifications for Sardinia and a few of those in Kretschmer, 1909, pp.289-91.]

Bochaca, Michel and Laurence Moal (eds). Le 'Grand routier' de Pierre Garcie dit Ferrande; instructions pour naviguer sue les mers du Ponant à la fin du Moyen Age (Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2019). [ A critical study of Garcie's rutter of c.1483, published in 1520.]

Bolumburu, Beatriz Arízaga & Michel Bochaca. 'Savoir nautique et navigation dans le golfe de Gascogne à la fin du Moyen Âge d'après "Le grant routtier et pyllotage et encrage de la mer" de Pierre Garcie dit Ferrande', Cuadernos del CEMYR, 15 (2007): 91-108. [About the detailed knowledge, dating from the end of the 15th century and formerly passed on orally, for navigating in the Bay of Biscay prior to the publication of Garcie's popular text.]

Bonasera, Francesco. 1997. La cartografia nautica anconetana (secoli 15.-16.). Collana di studi geo-cartografici storici; 1 (Cagli: E. Paleani, 1997). [The Jesi chart is reproduced on pp.72-3, with a brief description (largely a repeat of the following), and dating it to the 16th century].
    -- 1985. ‘Segnalazione di una carta nautica di tipo medievale conservata nella Biblioteca Comunale di Jesi, Geografia, anno VIII, n.3 (Rome: Edigeo, 1985): 136-8. 'Trimestrale di ricerca scientifica e di programmazione regionale'. [About the Jesi chart, including an illustration]

Borghesi, Vilma. La Sicilia nei portolani della prima meta del Seicento (Trapani: Libera università del Mediterraneo [after 1988]).

Bouloux, Nathalie. 2002. Culture et savoirs géographiques dans l'Italie du XIVe siècle. 'Terrarum Orbis' 2 (Turnhout: Brepols, 2002). [Discussing, inter alia, the manuscripts of Sanudo and Fra Paolino.]
    -- 1996. 'Deux vénitiens du XIVe e siècle et la géographie: Paulin de Venise et Marino Sanudo', in: Odile Redon (ed.) Savoirs des lieux. Géographies en histoire (Saint Denis, 1996) pp.11-25

Boutoura, Chryssoula. 'Assigning map projections to portolan maps' (illustrated article, in: e-Perimetron, 1:1 (Winter 2006), pp. 40-50.
    -- see also under Balletti, and Livieratos

Brancaccio, Giovanni. Geografia, cartografia e storia del Mezzogiorno (Guida Editori, 1991). [Available via Google Books - see particularly, pp.89-.]

Bremner, Robert W. 2000. 'Written portulans and charts from the 13th to the 16th century', in: Ars Nautica: Fernando Oliveira e o seu tempo: Humanismo e arte de navegar no Renascimento Europeu (1450-1650): Actas da IX Reunião Internacional de Historia da Nautica e da Hidrografia, Aveiro, 19-24 de Setembro de 1998 (Cascais: Patrimonia, 2000) pp.345-62.
    -- 1999. 'Nautical cartography before the discoveries: portolan charts', in: Os descubrimentos portugueses no século XV: actas II Simpósio de História marítima (Lisbon: Academia de Marinha, 1999): 57-69 [from a symposium in Lisbon in April 1994].
    -- 1984. 'The construction and origins of the portulan charts', Boletin Biblioteca da Universidade Coimbra 39 (1984) [actually 1986]: 177-92 [about the Carte Pisane (Census 14) and the 1497 Freducci (Census 39); includes table of errors in the latitude and longitude of 44 locations].

Brentjes, Sonja. 2015. 'Fourteenth-Century Portolan Charts. Challenges to our Understanding of Cross-Cultural Relationships in the Mediterranean and Black Sea Regions and of (Knowledge?) Practices of Chart-Makers', Journal of Transcultural Medieval Studies 2/1 (2015), 79-122.
    -- 2012. 'Medieval portolan charts as documents of shared cultural spaces', in: R. Addellatif, et al. (eds). Acteurs de transferts culturels en Méditerranée médiévale. Band 9, for the Deutsches Historisches Institut, Paris (Munich: Oldenbourg Verlag, 2012).
    -- 2009. 'Cartography in Islamic Societies', in: R. Kitchin & N. Thrift (eds) International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, Volume 1 (Oxford: Elsevier, 2009) pp. 414–27.
    -- 2008. 'Revisiting Catalan portolan charts: do they contain elements of Asian provenance?' in: Philippe Forêt & Andreas Kaplony (eds) The Journey of Maps and Images on the Silk Road. Brill's Inner Asian Library, vol. 21 (Leiden: Brill, 2008), pp.181-201. [Considering evidence of Asian sources for the western Asian section of the 1339 Dulcert [Dulceti] chart and the Catalan Atlas (Census 13 & 28).]

Brincken, Anna-Dorothee von den. 2008. Studien zur Universalkartographie des Mittelalters, edited by Thomas Szabo (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2008). [Veröffentlichungen des Max-Planck-Instituts für Geschichte 229].
    -- 1988. Kartographische Quellen. Welt-, See- und Regionalkarten. 'Typologie des sources du Moyen Age occidental' 51. (Turnhout: Brepols, 1988).

Brooks, Michael E. Visual Representations of Prester John and His Kingdom (seen on Academia.edu, August 2015).

Brumble, David H. Classical Myths and Legends in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance: a Dictionary of Allegorical Meanings (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1998).

Brunner, Hans. 'Die Elbe auf einer Portolankarte von 1339', in: Die Elbe im Kartenbild. Vermessung und Kartierung eines Stromes. Vorträge zum Symposium vom 20. bis 22. September 1991 an der TU Dresden (Dresden, 1994), pp.11-15. (Census 13).

Brunnlechner, Gerda, 'The so-called Genoese World Map of 1457: a stepping stone towards modern cartography?', Peregrinations: Journal of Medieval Art & Architecture 4, 1 (Spring 2013): 56-80.

Busch, Silvia Orvietani. Medieval Mediterranean Ports: The Catalan and Tuscan Coasts, 1100-1235 (Boston: Brill, 2001).

Buschek, Matthias. 'Die Bestimmung geographischer Längen in der Antike: ein Lösungsvorschlag zur Problematik der Portolankarten', Kartographische Nachrichten 37, Jg. 4 (August 1987): 143-6.

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Cadamosto see Verrier

Campbell, Tony. 2023. 'The crucial factors that explain the portolan charts’ endurance' - a 'Postscript' to Mediterranean portolan charts: their origin in the mental maps of medieval sailors, their function and their early development (27 August 2023).
    -- 2023. ‘How did the coastal outlines on the portolan charts of the Mediterranean and Black Sea find their way into world maps? And why did it take three centuries?’. A YouTube video of a talk to the IVth International Workshop: ‘On the Origin and Evolution of the Nautical Chart’, Lisbon, 26 May 2023 (Session 5, part 1).
    -- 2021. Index to selected topics covered in the portolan chart pages (a Microsoft Word table)
    -- 2021. Mediterranean portolan charts: their origin in the mental maps of medieval sailors, their function and their early development (an extended essay).
    -- 2020. The Charta Rogeriana: a reappraisal of the making of al-Idrīsī's world map of 1154 and its dissemination.
    -- 2020. The mental wind compass of the medieval Mediterranean: the rediscovery of its structure and interpretations of its use (including a section authored by Roel Nicolai).
    -- 2020. (with Captain Michael Barritt RN). ‘The Representation of Navigational Hazards: the Development of Toponymy and Symbology on Portolan Charts from the 13th Century onwards’ The Journal of the Hakluyt Society, December 2020.
    -- 2016. Cartographic innovations by the early portolan chartmakers (and subsequent developments). [Focusing through the centuries on the traditional medieval coverage: the Mediterranean and Black Seas, the North Sea and Baltic, and north-west Africa.]
    -- 2015. 'How old are portolan charts really'. Review of Roel Nicolai's article, in Brussels Map Circle Newsletter 53 (September 2015): 25-7. [The original article, summarising his doctoral thesis, appeared in Newsletter 52.]
    -- 2015. A detailed reassessment of the Carte Pisane: a late and inferior copy, or the lone survivor from the portolan charts' formative period? (An extended essay on the dating of the Carte Pisane, concluding in favour of a date of c.1290 and reassessing what the Carte Pisane can tell us about the early stages of portolan chart development - supported by a range of tables).
    -- 2015 [ongoing]. Listing and analysis of portolan chart toponyms along the continuous coastline from Dunkirk to Mogador (early 14th to late 17th century) including the transcribed names from the 'Liber de existencia riveriarum' and 'Lo compasso de navegare' as well as the Carte Pisane and Cortona chart (a much expanded and revised version of the 2013 Excel spreadsheet).
    -- 2013 [ongoing]. Red Names on the Portolan Charts (1311-1677): a detailed investigation. (Commentary and analysis, on three webpages and over 20 tables and graphs)
    -- 2013. Why the artificial shapes for the smaller islands on the portolan charts (1330-1600) help to clarify their navigational use, Cartes et géomatique, 216 (June 2013): 47-65 (paper delivered at the international conference, 'D'une technique à une culture: les cartes marines du XIIIe au XVIIIe siècle', Paris 3 December 2012).
    -- 2013. < https://www.sylviaioannoufoundation.org/images/stories/papers/Tony%20Campbell.pdf/ > 'Why were medieval sea charts still being produced four centuries later? Does the answer lie in the Aegean?', text and podcast of the paper given to the international conference, "Cyprus on the crossroads of travellers and map-makers from the 15th to 20th century", organized by the Sylvia Ioannou Foundation, Athens, 18-20 October 2012, at the Museum of Cycladic Art.
    -- 2012 [ongoing]. The introduction and abandonment of toponyms on portolan charts, 1300 to 1600 (an extended essay with accompanying tables and graphs)
    -- 2011 [ongoing]. A critical re-examination of portolan charts with a reassessment of their replication and seaboard function. (A book-length collection of essays, notes and analysis, on 20 webpages and over 80 tables and graphs) {Note: it was previously '... re-examination of early portolan charts ...' but was altered in February 2012 to take account of the toponymic examination that extended into the 17th century}
    -- 2011 [ongoing]. Complete chronological listing of works assigned to the period pre-1501 (with a note of high quality reproductions and place-name lists) [An Excel table.]
    -- 2011 [ongoing]. Table of 'Significant Names'- those that first appear on portolan charts after 1311 (and are repeated regularly thereafter) or those that disappear before 1600. [A large Microsoft Office Word 2003 table.]
    -- 2011 [ongoing]. The style and content of Grazioso Benincasa's charts: imitation, innovation and repetition. [With a sequence of five Microsoft Word Tables.]
    -- 2011 [ongoing]. The colours and shapes used to denote some of the smaller islands and the major estuaries on portolan charts up to 1500. [Essays, notes and analytical tables.]
    -- 2011 [ongoing]. Anonymous works and the question of their attribution to individual chartmakers or to supposed workshops.
    -- 2011 [ongoing]. Explanatory notes and wider implications of the Colour & Shape pages
    -- 2011 [ongoing]. Additional ('E') entries to the 'Census of pre-sixteenth-century portolan charts'
    -- 1987. [Chapter] 'Portolan Charts from the Late Thirteenth Century to 1500', in: J.B. Harley & David Woodward (eds), The History of Cartography. Volume 1 (University of Chicago Press, 1987), pp. 371-463 [available online in pdf format since June 2011, with the colour plates separately here (16-17, 23-32). Since the online version is repaginated (1-93), if you know the number of the printed page subtract that from 371.] [See also the update page for this, signalled by 'Chapter'.] The first three of the original volumes, including this chapter, were translated into Chinese as 'The History of Cartography' in Chinese and published by the Social Sciences Academic Press (Beijing, 2021-2022).
    -- 1986. [Census] 'Census of Pre-Sixteenth-Century Portolan Charts', Imago Mundi: the International Journal for the History of Cartography 38 (1986): 67-94. [See the update page for this, signalled by 'Census'.]
    -- 1984 [i.e. 1986]. 'Cyprus and the medieval portolan charts', Kupriakai Spoudai 48, pp. 47-66. [Including a table of the names on 'Lo Compasso' and 43 portolan atlases and charts (up to 1497).]
    -- 1983. 'The toponymy of early portolan charts: a neglected key to their understanding', paper presented at the 10th International Conference on the History of Cartography (Dublin, August 1983).

Campbell, Tony see also Fateme Savadi (2023)

Capacci, Alberto. 1996. 'Sulla carta anonima detta di Cortona', Genova, Colombo, il mare e l'emigrazione italiana nelle Americhe. Atti del XXVI Congresso Geografico Italiano (Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 1996) pp. 525-31. (Census 62).
    -- 1994. La toponomastica nella cartografia nautica di tipo medievale (Genoa: Università degli Studi di Genova, Centro Interdipartimentale di Studi Geografici Colombiani, 1994), VII-XII. [This hard-to-obtain 456-page volume is a valuable toponymic resource. It comprises an alphabetical index of 21,393 numbered toponymic variants with, in about 80% of cases, their modern identifications, as well as an index of about 2,700 modern names, each showing an average of eight variant forms. Capacci extracted names from the following charts (with my Census numbers for those pre-1500): 14. Carte Pisane, 62. Cortona chart, 4. Vesconte 1318 atlas in Vienna {not 1321}, 81. Luxoro Atlas, 28. Catalan Atlas, 116. Giroldi 1426, Andrea Benincasa 1508, Maggiolo 1561, Agnese (undated, in Bergamo), Martines 1571, Prunes 1601, printed Homem chart 1569, printed Crescenzio chart 1596, Caloiro e Oliva 1639, Michelot & Bremond (printed atlas, c.1730). The volume has been digitised by the Hathi Trust Digital Library, using the copy from the University of Michigan, and can be searched, but not read online (for copyright reasons). This can be used to identify the page references for the precise form of the original toponym (or parts of composite names, though those are sometimes run together, e.g. with the Carte Pisane) as well as the related modern identification, though it is no substitute for the book itself.]
    -- 1992. 'Osservazioni sulla carta anonima detta di Cortona', communication to the XXXVI Congresso Geografico Italiano (Genoa, 4-9 May 1992).

Caraci, Giuseppe. 1959. Italiani e Catalani nella primitiva cartografia nautica medievale. Memorie geografiche pubblicate a cura dell’Istituto di Scienze Geografiche e Cartografiche dell’Università degli Studi di Roma. vol. 5. (Rome: Istituto di Scienze Geografiche e Cartografiche, 1959). [Lists names Gibraltar-Ventimiglia (pp.291-301) from Dalorto, Dulcert [Dulceti] 1339, British Library 25691 and Catalan Atlas (Census 166, 13, 48 & 28), with comments and analysis.]
    -- 1953. 'The Italian cartographers of the Benincasa and Freducci families and the so-called Borgiana map of the Vatican Library', Imago Mundi 10 (1953), 23-45, [pp.43-5 includes comparative toponymy, from the 1436 Bianco atlas, the 1467 Benincasa atlas in Paris [Census 9], the undated Borgia V and the 1556 Freducci atlas, for the south coast of Asia Minor to the Libyan border.]
    -- 1952. 'A proposito di una nuova carta di Gabriel Vallsecha e dei rapporti fra la cartografia nautica italiana e quella maiorchina', Bollettino della Società Geografica Italiana 89 (1952): 388-418. [Compares (pp.412-17] the toponymy of selected stretches: C.S.Vincent-Frezur, the area around Algiers, and the Balearics, from the 1435 Beccari and the 1447 & 1449 Vallseca, with modern identifications - Census 100, 17 & 73.]
    -- 1950. 'An unknown nautical chart of Grazioso Benincas, 1468', Imago Mundi 7 (1950): 18-31. [Listing the names from Census 129 for France (both coasts), Iberia and N.W. Africa, etc., relating those to the Catlan Atlas, 1426 Ziroldi, the Benincasa portolano and 1473 atlas, a chart by Conte Ottomano Freducci, Kretschmer's comments and the lists in Nordenskiöld's Periplus.]
    -- 1936. 'Inedita cartographica. 1. Un gruppo di carte e atlanti nautici conservati a Genova', La Bibliofilia 38 (1936): 149-82. [Considers (pp.172-82) groups of names - Marseilles-Cataro [near Ragusa], Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, etc. - from six later charts: J. Olives 1563, B. Olives 1583, J.Riczo/Oliva 1587 & 1588, P.Caloiro e Oliva 1624, P. Cavallini 1676.]

Caraci, I. Luzzana - see under L.

Caracoglia, Bruna. 'Ruolo della cartografia nella scoperti e definizione del Mediterraneo', in: La metafore del Mediterraneo: atti del Convegno Trieste, 13-14 dicembre 2002 (Trieste: EUT Edizioni Università, 2006), pp.42-52.

Carile, Antonio. 'Una lista toponomastica di Morea del 1469', Studi Veneziani 12 (1970): 385-404. [A contemporary list of 130 Venetian possessions in the Peloponnese, either still held in September 1469 and/or ruined. The list is not in geographical order and includes few names recognisable on the charts.]

Casanova, Eugenio. La carta nautica di Conte di Ottomanno Freducci d'Ancona conservata nel R.Archivio di Stato in Firenze . Pubblicazioni del R. Istituti di studi superiori practici e di perfezionamento in Firenze, sezione di filosofia e filologia. No.21 (Florence, 1894). [Listing the names, from the Baltic to Naples and Tripoli (Libya) to the W. African terminus (pp.57-82), from 23 charts or groups, starting with G. Benincasa (1461 & 1480, treated together), A. Benincasa (1476) and others up to or beyond 1529].]

Cassola, Arnold. Malta. People, Toponymy, Language (4th century B.C. - 1600) (Valletta: Farsons Foundation, 2011). [Chapter 3 deals with the toponymy of Malta, Gozo and Comino in the 'Compasso de navegare' and two 15th-century portolani.]

Castelnovi, Michele. 'Il portolano: una fonte storica medievale trascurata', Rotte i porti del Mediterraneo dopo la caduta dell'Impero Romano d'Occidente: continuità e innovazioni tecnologiche e funzionali. IV seminario. Genova, 18-19 giugno 2004 [ed. Lorenza di Maria & Rita Turchetti] (Soveria Mannelli: Rubbettino, 2004) pp.343-61.

Casti Moreschi, Emanuela. 1993. 'Cartografia e politica territoriale nella Repubblica di Venezia (secoli XIV-XVIII)', in: La cartografia italiana (Barcelona: Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya, 1993), pp. 79-101.
    -- 1985. 'La cartografia veneziana al tempo di Cristoforo Colombo', Atti del IV Convegno Internazionale di Studi Colombiani (Genoa, 1985).

Cattaneo, Angelo. 2011. Fra Mauro's Mappa mundi and Fifteenth-Century Venice. Terrarum Orbis: a history of the representation of space in text and image, Vol.8 (Turnhout: Brepols, 2011).
    -- 2003. 'Fra Mauro, Cosmographus Incomparabilis, and his Mappamundi: Documents, Sources and Protocols for Mapping', in La cartografia europea tra primo rinascimento e fine dell'illuminismo. Atti del convegno internazionale: The making of European cartography [Florence, 13-15 December 2001] (Florence, 2003) pp.19-48.

Cavallo, Guglielmo (ed.). Cristoforo Colombo e l'apertura degli spazi. Mostra storico-cartografica. 2 vols (Rome: Istituto poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, 1992). [Catalogue of an exhibition in the Palazzo Ducale, Genoa, reproducing (1:332 & 435) a sheet from the 1426 Ziroldi atlas in Venice and the Vallseca chart - Census 116 & 128.]

Cebrián i Molina, Josep Lluís. 2009. 'La reina de Sabà i el preste Joan en les cartes portolanes medievals', Cuardernos de geografía. Universidad de Valencia 86 (2009): 183-94.
    -- 2007. 'Gènova, Barcelona i València en les cartes portolanes dels segles XIV i XV', in: Mètode: revista de difusió de la investigació de la Universitat de Valencia 53 (2007), pp. 83-7.

Cerezo Martínez, Ricardo. 1994. La cartografia náutica española de los siglos XIV, XV i XVI (Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1994).
    -- 1985. 'Incidencia de la declinación magnética en el desarrollo de la cartografia portulana', in: "Atti del Convegno 'Spagna e Toscana: la cartografia nautica di due paesi mediterranei nei secoli XVI e XVII', Pisa, 12 aprile 1985 e Livorno, 13 aprile 1985", Quaderni Stefaniani (Pisa: Istituzione dei Cavelieri di S. Stefano, 1985): 97-128 ['includes table of declination in the Mediterranean and Black Seas on charts from A. Dulcert [Dulceti] (1339) [Census 13] to F. Oliva (1662)'.]

Ceva, Juan. Catalan Atlas legends. 2014. Also Here [Census 28 - illustrated translations into English.]
    -- See his academia page for translations from Catalan into English of articles by Crespi, Llompart and Riera.

Chrysochoou, Stella. [1999 or later; noted February 2015]. 'The Cartographic Representation of Crete from the Byzantine Manuscripts of the Ptolemaic Geography to the Printed Maps of the 18th c.' [English translation of an article in Greek with no stated citation. Portolan charts are specifically excluded.]

Comellas García-Llera, José Luis. La carta de Cristóbal Colón: mapamundi, circa 1492 (Barcelona: Moleiro, 1995). [Census 10.]

Comes Maymó, Mercè. 2009. 'La cartografia nàutica àrab en el context mediterrani (1300-1600): un projecte en marxa', Drassana [Museu Marítim de Barcelona] 17 (2009): 82-93.
    -- 2008. 'Influències de la cartografia mallorquina a la carta nàutica d'Ibrahim al-Mursi'. Actes d'història de la ciència i de la técnica. Nova Epoca, 1,1 (2008), pp. 257-60.
    -- 2007. 'Ibrahim al-Tabib al-Mursi', in: Les artes y las ciencias en el Occidente musulmán (Murcia, 2007) pp.74-81. [Accompanying the exhibition at the Museo de la Ciencia y el Agua from June 2007 - (Census 132).]
    -- 2004. 'La cartografia a Mallorca i a Barcelona', in: J.Vernet & R. Parés (eds) La ciència en la història dels Països Catalans. I. Dels àrabs al Renaixement (Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans; Valencia: Universitat de València, 2004), pp.515-73.
    -- 2000. 'Islamic Geographical Coordinates: al-Andalus’ contribution to the correct measurement of the size of the Mediterranean', in Science in Islamic Civilization. Studies and Sources on the History of Science (Istanbul: Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture, 2000), pp.123-38.

Com'nougue, Michel. 'Les Nouvelles Méthodes de Navigation durant le Moyen Age'. Doctoral thesis, Ecole doctorale Abbé Grégoire, Le CNAM, 2012. 529 pp.

Conde Delgado de Molina, Rafael. Quan Catalunya cavalcava damunt les ones. El consolat de mar i el Llibre del consolat de mar (Barcelona: Cambra Oficial de Comerç, 2001). [Exhibition catalogue, about Census 127 (at least).]

Conterio, Annalisa. 1992. 'L' "Arte del navegar". Cultura, formazione professionale ed esperienze dell'uomo di mare veneziano nel XV secolo', L'uomo e il mare nella civiltà occidentale: da Ulisse a Cristoforo Colombo. Atti del convegno (Genova 1-4 giugno 1992). "Atti della Società Ligure di Storia Patria", 32 (1992): 187-225
    -- 1991. Pietro de Versi. 'Raxion de' marineri. Taccuino nautico del XV secolo' (Venice: Comitato per la pubblicazione delle fonti relative alla storia di Venezia, 1991). [It has now been discovered that the 1444 portolano by Pietro de/di Versi is actually by Michael of Rhodes.]

Conti, Simonetta. 2005. 'Portolani e cartografia nautica nel Medioevo mediterraneo', Tradizione giuridico- marittima del Mediterraneao tra storia ed attualità. Atti del Convegno internazionale di studi storici di diritto marittimo medioevale. Mostra bibliografica e cartografica. Napoli 23-25 settembre 2004 (Rome, 2005) pp. 69-80.
    -- 2004. 'Gli autori di carte nautiche', Geostorie. Bollettino e notiziario del centro italiano per gli studi storico-geografici, Anno 12, no.2-3, maggio-dicembre 2004.
    -- 1995. 'Le carte nautiche "doppie" della famiglia Olives-Oliva', in Momenti e problemi della geografia contemporanea. Atti del Convegno Internazionale in onore di Giuseppe Caraci geografo storico umanista. Roma, 24-25-26 novembre 1993. Centro italiano per gli studi storico geografici (1995), pp.493-510.
    -- 1985. 'Portolano e carta nautica: confronto toponomastico', in Carla Marzoli (ed.): Imago et mensura mundi. Atti del IX congresso internazionale di storia della cartografia (Rome: Enciclopedia Italiana, 1985). 2: 55-60.
    -- 1978. Una carta nautica inedita di Placidus Caloiro et Oliva del 1657. Università di Roma, Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia. Publicazioni dell'Istituto di Geografia. Serie B (Geostorica) (Roma, 1978). [Transcribing the toponymy from the 1639 & 1657 charts by Caloiro et Oliva, with modern identifications, from C. Finistere round to West Africa (not covering the Black Sea).]

Cooper, John P. The Medieval Nile: Route, Navigation and Landscape in Islamic Egypt (Cairo: AUC Press, 2014).

Correio, David Álvarez Jimenez Correio & Sergio Remedios Sánchez Correio. 'Men of sea. The making of an identity', Revista Diálogos Mediterrânicos (2014) ["we can speak of a mariner identity in opposition to the earthly-based society".]

Cortesão, Armando. 1969-71. History of Portuguese Cartography, 2 vols (Coimbra, 1969-71).
    -- 1970. 'Pizzigano's chart of 1424', Revista da Universidade de Coimbra, 24 (1970): 477-91. [Also available as a 'Separata. Vol XXIV' from the Junta de Investigações do Ultramar — Lisboa (Coimbra, 1970).]
    -- 1954. The nautical chart of 1424 and the early discovery and cartographical representation of America: a study on the history of early navigation and cartography (Coimbra: Universidade de Coimbra, 1954). [The toponymy - covering the Atlantic coasts and extending east as far as Barcelona and the Balearics, and Bougie (Algeria) - with suggested modern identifications, is given on pp.12-18.]
    -- 1953. 'The North Atlantic Nautical Chart of 1424', Imago Mundi, 10 (1953): 1-13.

Cortesão, Armando & Avelino Teixeira da Mota. Portugaliae monumenta cartographica [PMC]. 6 vols (Lisbon, 1960). (With bilingual Portuguese and English texts). [See under Pinheiro Marques, Alfredo (1987) for a later, reduced-size edition with a supplement.]

Cortesão, Jaime. 1997(a). Os descobrimentos pré-colombinos dos Portugueses. Obras completas, 9 (Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional - Casa da Moeda).
    -- 1997(b). A política de sigilo nos descobrimentos Obras completas, 20 (Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional - Casa da Moeda).

Costaguti, Angelo & Serena Dainotto. Il portolano della spiaggia romana nel Mare Mediterraneo (Roma: Rivista marittima; Archivio di Stato Roma, 2005).

Cotrugli, Benedetto. Il Libro dell'Arte di Mercatura, [1468], ed. Ugo Tucci (Venice: Arsenale, 1990).

Cousins, Jill Fiona. [A Ph.D from Manchester University, 1984 on 16th-century Arabic and Turkish sea-charts, with a concordance to their place-names.]

Crescentio, Bartolomeo. Nautica Mediterranea (Rome: Bartolomeo Bonfadino, 1602). [A scanned version is available from the Bibliothèque national de France.]

Crespi, Maria Barceló & Gabriel Llompart i Moragues. 'Forty Pieces on Majorcan Medieval Art', a translation by Juan Ceva of: 'Quaranta dades d'art medieval mallorquí', Bolletí de la Societat Archeologica Luliana 54 (1998): 85-104. [Including comments on several Majorcan chartmakers: Lluís Bonora (Document 11), Bartomeu Olives (19), Pere Rosell (22) and Gabriel Vallseca (33-36).]

Crouzet-Pavan, Elisabeth, 'Le port de Venise aux XIVème et XVème siècles: faux-semblants, définitions, mutations', in: Ennio Poleggi (ed.) Città portuali del Mediterraneo, storia e archeologia. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Genova 1985 (Genoa: Sagep Editrice, 1989), pp. 231-49.

Crowley, Roger. City of Fortune: how Venice won and lost a naval empire (London: Faber & Faber, 2011). [Covering the period 1000-1503, including considerable information about Venice's overseas possessions.]

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Davis, Danny Lee. 'Commercial Navigation in the Greek and Roman World', PhD dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, May 2009.

Debanne, Alessandra D. 2011. Lo Compasso de navegare. Edizione del codice Hamilton 396 con commento linguistico e glossario (Brussels, etc.: Peter Lang for the Gruppo degli italianisti delle Università francofone del Belgio, 2011). [See also Corrections and additions to the index by Alessandra Debanne to her edition of 'Lo compasso de navegare' (pp. 293-342).]
    -- 2009. 'Il lessico tecnico e geomorfologico marinaresco in un portolano del Duecento: il "Compasso de navegare"', Carte di viaggio, 2 (2009): 47-62. [Including a comparison of units of measure (52-3).]

Degenhart, Bernhard and Annegrit Schmitt. 'Marino Sanudo und Paolino Veneto', Römisches Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte, 14 (1973): 1-137. [Relevant for Vesconte's version of Sanudo's treatise.]

Delano-Smith, Catherine. 'The intelligent pilgrim: Maps and medieval pilgrimage to the Holy Land', in: Rosamund Allen (ed.) Eastward Bound: Travel and Travellers, 1050-1550 (Manchester University Press, 2004).

Deluz, Christiane. 'Pèlerins et voyageurs face à la mer (XIIe-XVIe siècles)', in: Henri Dubois, Jean-Claude Hocquet & André Vauchez (eds), Horizons marins, itinéraires spirituels (V-XVIIIe siècles). Volume II of Marins, navires et affaires (Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 1987), pp.277-88.

De Marchi, Laura. 2017 (?). 'Mari dipinti e immagini sacre nella cartografia. Per una storia di carte, atlanti e planisferi miniati a Venezia nel XIV e XV secolo'. Ph.D thesis from the Università Ca'Foscari Venezia [2016 or later]. [Including '5. Storie di devozione', pp.83-108.]

    -- 2015. 'Come antiche preghiere. Gli atlanti veneziani del Vesconte', Rivista di storia della miniatura, 19 (2015): 46-57. ["The study shows that Vesconte’s atlases are the result of collaboration between Pietro and a workshop of Venetian illuminators ... The article explains why numerous figures of saints can be found in these atlases and suggests a possible practical use, as manuals for consulting places during a sea voyage and for prayer".]

Denny, Mark. The science of navigation: from dead reckoning to GPS (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012)

Desimoni, Cornelio & Luigi Tommaso Belgrano. 'Atlante idrografico del medio evo', Atti della Società Ligure di Storia Patria 5 (1867): 5-168. [About the Luxoro Atlas (Census 81), with a transcription of its names.]

Destombes, Marcel (ed.) Mappemondes A.D. 1200-1500. Catalogue préparé par la Commission des Cartes Anciennes de l'Union Géographique Internationale (Amsterdam: N. Israel, 1964). [See the section on 'Mappemondes isolées', pp.193-234 and the relevant illustrations, for world maps that incorporate portolan chart outlines, readily recognised by their inclusion of a realistic Gulf of Sirte (Libya).]

Dias, Gonçalo A. S. ’Investigating Beccari’s Claims with New Cartometric Methods’, e-Perimetron, 13:3 (2018): 141-60. [The author comes to no conclusion about the dating of the latitude scale on the 1403 chart.]
See also under Gregory C. McIntosh

Dimitrov, D. 'The Role of the Western Black Sea Ports in Navigation and Commerce, 13th-15th Centuries', in: Proceedings of the 22nd International Congress of Byzantine Studies,Sofia 2011. Volume 1: Plenary Papers. (Sofia, 2011,) pp.451-72.

Domingues, Francisco Contente. 2009. 'La cartografía portuguesa en la transición del siglo XV al XVI: de las primeras cartas al planisfério anónimo de 1502', in: Mariano Cuesta Domingo & Alfredo Surroca Carrascosa, Cartografía medieval hispáníca. Imagen de un mundo en construcción (Madrid: Real Sociedad Geográfica - Real Liga Naval Española, 2009), pp.259-74.
    -- 1992. Colombo e a política de sigilo na historiografia portuguesa. Francofone del Belgio Centro de Estudos de História e Cartografia Antiga. Separata 232. (Lisbon: Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, 1992).

Donattini, Massimo. Spazio e modernità: libri, carte, isolari nell'età delle scoperte (Bologna: CLUEB, 2000).

Doumerc, Bernard. 'Le galere da mercato', in Alberto Tenenti & Ugo Tucci (eds) Storia di Venezia. Vol. XII. Il mare (Rome: Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana, 1991), pp.357-95.

Dreyer-Eimbcke, Oswald. 'Mythische und imaginäre Inseln des Atlantiks im Kartenbild', in: Frank Norbert Nagel (ed.) Der nordatlantische Raum. Festschrift für Gerhard Oberbeck. Mitteilungen der Geographischen Gesellschaft in Hamburg, Band 80. (Hamburg/Stuttgart, 1990), p.651-81.

Ducène, Jean-Charles. 2018. 'L’Europe et les géographes arabes du Moyen Âge', (Paris, CNRS éditions, 2018). See a reviewby Emmanuelle Vagnon in Bulletin Critique des Annales Islamologiques, BCAI, 33, (2019): 48-50.
    -- 2016. 'La côte de la Libye dans les portulans latins, italiens, arabes et grecs', in: Michel Vincent (ed.), De leptis magna a derna, de la tripolitaine a la cyrenaique - travaux recents sur la libye antique (Paris: Riveneuve Editions, 2016), pp.81-97.
    -- 2014. 'The Knowledge of the Seas According to the Ottoman Translations and Adaptation of Arabic Works (15th – 16th c.)', in: Uluslararasi Piri Reis ve Türk Denizcilik Tarihi Sempozyumu, 26 – 29 Eylül 2013 (Istanbul, Türk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara, 2014), VI, pp.123-134 & 301-304.
    -- 2013. 'Le portulan arabe décrit par Al-'Umarī', Cartes et géomatique, 216 (June 2013): 81-90 (paper delivered at the international conference, 'D'une technique à une culture: les cartes marines du XIIIe au XVIIIe siècle', Paris 3 December 2012). [About a reference to an apparently Arabic portolan chart described in a Mamluk encyclopedia from 1330-48.]

Duggan, Terrance M.P. 'From mid-October to the end of March – voyaging in the Medieval Mediterranean', Cedrus III (2015): 277-310. [Arguing that "the legal prohibition placed upon winter sailing [was] a Medieval legal fiction, rather than there being in practice a closed Mediterranean".]

Duken, A.J. 1988. 'Reconstruction of the portolan chart of G. Carignano (c.1310)', Imago Mundi 40 (1988): 86-95 [on Census 65].
    -- 1984. Die mathematische Rekonstruktion der Portolankarte des Giovanni Carignano (ca 1310): ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Kartographie (Bückeburg, Niedersachsen: Karl Driftmann, 1984). (Census 65).

Dürst, Arthur. 1996(a). 'Die weltkarte von Albertin de Virga von 1411 oder 1415', Cartographica Helvetica 13 (1996): 18-21.
    -- 1996(b). 'Die katalanische Estense-Weltkarte, um. 1450: bericht zur faksimile-ausgabe', Cartographica Helvetica 14 (1996): 42-4.
    -- 1984. Seekarte des Andrea Benincasa (Borgiano VIII), 1508. Codices e Vaticanis selecti. (Zürich & Stuttgart: Verlag Belser, 1984). [Commentary to the facsimile atlas, including (Abb. 1-5) reproductions of the 1476 atlas by Andrea Benincasa. See also later version by Sandra Sider.]
    -- 1983. Seekarte des Iehuda ben Zara (Borgiano VII) 1497. Codices e Vaticanis selecti. (Zürich & Stuttgart: Verlag Belser, 1983). [Commentary to the facsimile atlas. See also later version by Sandra Sider.]

Dutschke, C.W., with the assistance of R. H. Rouse et al., Guide to Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Huntington Library (San Marino, 1989). Electronic version, 2003 [about HM 1548, Census 151].

Dwyer, Doris D. Fact and Legend in the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (Chicago: Herman Dunlap Smith Center for the History of Cartography, Newberry Library, 1997).

Džurova, Aksinia (et al.). Manoscritti Slavi: documenti e carte riguardanti la storia Bulgara della Biblioteca Vaticana e dell'Archivio Segreto Vaticano (IX-XVII secolo) (Sofia: Nauka, 1979).

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Edson, Evelyn. 2017. Description of the Aegean and Other Islands, an annotated edition of Cristoforo Buondelmonti's 'Liber insularum Archipelagi' (1420). (New York: Italica Press, 2017).
    -- 2010. 'The Marine Chart in the Mappamundi: Mapping the World in the Later Middle Ages'. [235-minute webcast of the talks given by Evelyn Edson, Alison Sandman, Richard Pflederer, John Hessler and Fenella France, at the Library of Congress on 21 May 2010; requires RealPlayer].
    -- 2007. The World Map, 1300-1492: the Persistence of Tradition and Transformation (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007). [Including chapters on 'Marine charts and sailing directions', 'Sea chart and mappamundi in the 14th century'.] (Selected pages are available via Google Books, but the whole work is searchable).
    -- 2004. 'Reviving the crusade: Sanudo's schemes and Vesconte's maps', in: Rosamund Allen (ed.) Eastward Bound: Travel and Travellers, 1050-1550 (Manchester University Press, 2004), pp.131-55.
    -- 1999. Mapping Time and Space: How Medieval Mapmakers Viewed their World (London: British Library, 1999).

Emecen, Feridun, M. 'Notes on the historical development of small harbors on the Anatolian shores of the Black Sea' (pp.101-107 - date and source volume unknown).

Emiliani, Marina. 1937. 'L'arcipelago dalmata nel portolano di Grazioso Benincasa, Archivio Storico per la Dalmazia - Roma 22 (1937): 402-22. [Transcribes the text from the portolano of 1435-45 for the coast between, roughly, Zara and Cataro, with identifications; some of those names are also picked by Kretschmer]
    -- 1936. 'Le carte nautiche dei Benincasa, cartografi anconetani', Bollettino della Reale Società Geografica Italiana 73 (1936): 485-510.

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Fabre, Ghislaine, Daniel Le Blévec & Denis Menjot (eds). Les ports et la navigation en Méditerranée au Moyen-Âge (Editions Le Manuscrit, 2009). [The proceedings of an international colloquium in the Ville de Lattes, 12-14 November 2004, around three themes: "ports et marchands languedociens, espaces, structures et trafics portuaires et flottes, navigation et faits maritimes".]

Fábregas García, Adela. 'Redes de comercio y articulación portuaria del Reino de Granada: puertos y escalas en el tráfico marítimo bajomedieval', Chronica Nova 30 (2003-2004): 69-102.

Fadda, Bianca. 'I toponimi del Mediterraneo nel Compasso de navegare', Archivio Storico Sardo 40 (1999): 251-402.

Falchetta, Piero. L'atlante nautico "Corbitis", già detto "Combitis" (a brief, undated, note on the four-chart atlas from the early 15th century, previously known as the Combitis Atlas; follow ‘sfoglia l'atlante’ for the remainder - Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Ms. It. VI 213 (=5982)) (Census 117 'Combitis/Corbitis Atlas').
    -- 'Benedetto Cotrugli, De Navigatione (1464-65). 'Trascrizione del testo del ms. 557 della Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library (Yale University) a cura di Piero Falchetta'. (Undated web page - for comment see the update page to the 'Chapter', under 'Navigational practice')
    -- Carte geografiche e cartografi a Venezia al tempo di Giovanni Caboto. (Undated web page based on a 1997 paper)
    -- Periplus. ("Elenco dei toponimi di una carta nautica della fine del XIV secolo (Ms. 10057 della Biblioteca Marciana) / List of the place names from a portolan chart of the end of the fourteenth century (Ms. 10057, Marciana Library, Venice)". (Undated web page; relating that chart to five other works - Census 115)
    -- Carta nautica del Mediterraneo e del Mar Nero, fine sec. XIV. Biblioteca Marciana, Ms. It. IV, 1912 (=10057). Trascrizione dei toponimi. (Undated; probably the same list as the preceding.)
Periplus Adriaticus. ("Elenco comparato dei toponimi costieri dell'Adriatico (isole escluse) di quarantacinque carte e atlanti nautici italiani manoscritti dei secoli XIV e XV. Comparative list of the place-names along the Adriatic coastlines (islands excluded) from forty-five Italian manuscript portolan charts and atlases of the 14th and 15th Centuries"). (Undated web page - toponymy from Otranto to Golfo di Larta, noting for each name the variants and their incidences, from 39 pre-1500 Venetian atlases & charts, and four portolani - including Benincasa but excluding Catalan and Genoese works. NB Otranto to Ancona was not covered in the Pujades listing).
    -- Il portolano di Michele da Rodi. (Undated web page, containing the original Italian version of the text published in English in 2009, see below)

    -- 2017. 'Per un buon uso del Mediterraneo: portolani, mappe, isolari, testi nautici (secc. XIII-XVI)', in: Gherardo Ortalli & Alessio Sopracasa (eds) Istituto veneto di scienze, lettere ed arti. Rapporti mediterranei, pratiche documentarie, presenze veneziane: le reti economiche e culturali (XIV - XVI secolo) (Venice, 2017), pp.69-[96].
    -- 2013. Storia del Mappamondo di Fra' Mauro. Con la trascrizione integrale del testo. Rimini: Imago [2013], for the Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana) [c.251 pp.]. Also an English edition: Fra' Mauro's World Map: a History. [124 pages.] Each edition available online (at a modest price) as a downloadable e-Book.]
    -- 2012. 'Benedetto Cotrugli et son traité De navigatione (1464-1465)', The Historical Review / La Revue Historique [Institute of Neo-Hellenic Research, Athens], 9 (2012): 53-62.
    -- 2009(a). 'Il trattato De navigatione di Benedetto Cotrugli (1464-65)'. Edizione commentata del ms. Schoenberg 473. Con il testo del ms. 557 di Yale, Studi Veneziani, LVII (2009 - available February 2010). [Including the complete transcription of the two manuscripts of the work (one in a private collection, the other at Yale University), a modern Italian version of the text, and much editorial matter.]
    -- 2009(b). 'The Portolan of Michael of Rhodes', in: Pamela O. Long, et al. (eds), The Book of Michael of Rhodes. Vol. 3: Studies (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2009) pp. 193-211.
    -- 2008. 'The use of portolan charts in European navigation during the Middle Ages', in: Ingrid Baumgärtner & Hartmut Kugler (eds) Europa im Weltbild des Mittelalters: kartographische Konzepte. Orbis mediaevalis: Vorstellungswelten des Mitttelalters. Bd.10 [Proceedings of the conference held in Nuremberg, 15-17 June, 2006] (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2008) pp.269-76.
    -- 2001. 'Bartolomeo 'da li Sonetti' e Battista Agnese: due autori per un isolario', in: Camillo Tonini & Piero Lucchi (eds), Navigare e descrivere. Isolari e portolani del Museo Correr di Venezia, XV-XVIII secolo (Venice: Marsilio, 2001), pp.45-48.
    -- 1995. 'Marinai, mercanti, cartografi, pittori. Ricerche sulla cartografia nautica a Venezia (sec. XIV-XV)', Ateneo Veneto 182 (1995):7-109. [The major study on Venetian chartmakers - see the review by Marica Milanesi in Imago Mundi 49 (1997): 180-1].
    -- 1994. 'Manuscript No. 10057 in the Biblioteca Marciana, Venice: a possible source for the Catalan atlas?', Imago Mundi 46 (1994): 19-28 [(Census 115); comparing it with the toponymy of the Catalan Atlas (Census 28) and the 1339 Dulcert [Dulceti] chart (Census 13); he detects a linguistic shift in the toponymy of the mid-14th century from Italian to Catalan, and suggests a date for the Marciana chart in the period 1359-75]. [A version of this article was mounted on Academia in November 2015.]
    -- 1993. 'Il dotto marinaio: Andrea Bianco e l'atlante nautico marciano del 1436', in: L'Atlante nautico di Andrea Bianco (1436) (a facsimile ed. P. Falchetta). (Venice: Arsenale, 1993), pp.7-12. (Census 112).

Faričić, Josip. 2009. 'La toponimia storica nelle antiche carte geografiche della facciata orientale dell'Adriatico', in: Luciano Lago, Orietta Selva & Dragan Umek (eds), La toponomastica in Istria, Fiume e Dalmazia. Vol. II, Parte 1: Aspetti cartografici e comparazione geostorica (Florence: Istituto Geografico Militare, 2009) pp.217-45.
    -- 2007. 'Geographical Names on 16th and 17th Century Maps of Croatia', Cartography and Geoinformation, 6, [Special Issue] (2007): 148-79.

Faričić, Josip, Ivka Kljajic, Lena Miroševic & Dubravka Mlinaric. 'Symbolism of Compass Roses on Early Modern Nautical Charts of the Adriatic Sea', Journal of Cartography and Geographic Information, 73 (2023): 19-37.

Faričić, Josip, Damir Magas & Lena Miroševic. 'Geographical Names on Mercator's Maps of Croatia', Cartographic Journal, 49, 2 (2012): 125-34.

Faričić, Josip, Orietta Selva & Dragan Umek. 'Geographical names of the Adriatic Sea on medieval and early-modern maps and nautical charts', Journal of Historical Geography, 82 (2023): 68-80 (analysing the signifance of the alternative use of 'Mare Adriaticum' and 'Golfo di Venezia' on 100 maps and charts).

Fernandes Costa, Manuel. As navegações atlânticasno século XV. Biblioteca Breve / Volume 30. Instituto de Cultura Portuguesa (Amadora, Portugal, 1979). [With sections on 15th-century Atlantic navigation and voyaging.]

Fernández-Armesto, Felipe. 1996. 'Spanish Atlantic Voyages and Conquests before Columbus', in: J. Hattendorf, et al. (eds), Maritime History: the Age of Discovery (Malabar, Florida: Krieger, 1996), I, 137-47.
    -- 1987. 'Mapping the eastern Atlantic', in: Before Columbus: exploration and colonisation from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic 1229-1492. New Studies in Medieval History. (London; Basingstoke: Macmillan Educational, 1987), pp.151-68, 259-60.

Fernández García, Alvaro. Cartografía medieval: el enigma del Mapamundi de 1375. Colección Historia. (Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva, 2009). [Including a discussion of the parrot held by the Egyptian Sultan of Babylon (Census 28).]

Fernández García, Francisco R. (et al.). 'Gauge functions and portolan charts', Studies in Locational Analysis. Journal of the Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies in Environmental Management, Locational Decisions and Regional Planning (ISENLORE) 14 (2000): 67-81. ('The authors show how the first harbour-finding charts used between the 13th to the 17th centuries by sailors, which are called Portolan Charts, are strongly related to the gauge functions which we use in location theory. This type of chart is not a projection of the global sphere on a plane but is drawn as a usual topographical work, with the help of the magnetic needle and the estimation of the distances. This corresponds to the polygon and its directions used by the gauge functions.')

Ferrar, Michael J. 2015. Lo Conpasso de Navegare; Not for drawing charts from (September 2015).
    -- Draughtsmanship and cartography before History; The 1457 World map, Genoese , Yes! Par exampli [Undated but noted on Academia 12 April 2015.]
    -- Les cartes portolanes: a critical analysis of the technical sections, winds and draughtsmanship using the original text order as the determinant [A critique of two sections in Pujades 2007, arguing that instead of the wind diagrams "the background graticule can be shown to be the arbiter of the Portolan Chart with the copying method to obtain a number of similar charts merely the use of templates. The background graticule assists in the primary positioning of the map, and certainly provides the chart scale". Added to academia in January 2015.]
    -- Leather, Vellum, Parchment; Drawing and copying maps and charts. (An 18-page essay mounted on academia.edu, dated November 2013.) [A provocative statement about the origin and reproduction of the early portolan charts: "an attempt to cut through the mire of mis-information and counter-arguments that the various schools of thought are peddling, and produce a coherent text which ignores the so called experts and starts from first principles to produce a non-aligned definitive text". Pages 12-14 provide his suggested answers to my 12 'outstanding questions' regarding the copying method (from Some areas for possible future research into early portolan charts)]
    -- For other articles - among them, 'Portolan; the charts and the myths, three statements; three responses' (2014) and 'The map within the Portolan; Examination by redrawing: Occam's Razor Methodology; Lex Parsimoniae' (two parts, one dated 2013) - see the author's academia.edu page and his website [note that you must first enable the Adobe reader button (at the top)].

Ferreira Priegue, Elisa. Galicia en el comercio marítimo medieval (A Coruña: Fundación Pedro Barie de la Maza, 1988).

Ferrer i Mallol, Maria Teresa. 'Navegació, ports i comerç a la Mediterrània de la Baixa Edat Mitjana'. Comercio, redistribución y fondeaderos. La navegación a vela en el Mediterráneo. Actas V Jornadas Internacionales de Arqueologia Subacuática (Gandía, 8-6 de noviembre de 2006), (Valencia, 2007), pp.113-66.

Ferro, Gaetano. 1996. The Genoese cartographic tradition and Christopher Columbus (Rome: Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato Libreria dello Stato, 1996.) [Apparently a translation of the 1992 work, La tradizione cartografica genovese e Cristoforo Colombo, though there is confusion as to how this version was issued.]
    -- 1992(a). Carte nautiche dal Medioevo all'Età moderna (Genoa: Edizioni Colombo, 1992).
    -- 1992(b). La tradizione cartografica genovese e Cristoforo Colombo. Nuova Raccolta Colombiana Vol. XIII (Rome: Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, 1992). [See 1996.]
    -- 1992(c). 'Cartografi e dinastie di cartografi a Genova', in G. Cavallo (ed.): Cristoforo Colombo e l'apertura degli spazi. 2 vols (Rome, 1992), pp.245-61. [Discussing apprenticeship in Genoa.]
    -- 1991. 'La carta nautica di Albino de Canepa (1480)', Bollettino della Società Geografica Italiana series 9, vol. 8 (1991): 4-6, 231-42. (Census 105).
    -- 1990. La tradizione cartografica genovese e Albino de Canepa (Milan: Jaca Book, 1990.
    -- 1988. Carte nautiche da musei e biblioteche della Liguria dal XIV al XVII secolo (Bologna: Analisi, 1988). [In English, with title 'Nautical charts from Ligurian museums and libraries from the 14th to the 17th century'; accompanying an exhibition in New York in 1987 and Genoa in 1988. Not seen; featuring Census 81, Luxoro Atlas?]

Flint, Valerie I.J. 'Columbus, "El Romero", and the so called Columbus Map', Terrae Incognitae 24 (1992): 19-30. (Census 10).

Fomenko, Igor' Konstantinovich. 2007. Obraz mira na starinnykh portolanakh: Prichernomor'e, konets XIII-XVII v. [The world image in old portolan charts: the Black Sea region between the late 13th and the 18th century] (Moscow: Indrik, 2007). [A book of 396 pages.]
    -- 2001. [Range of geographical names Black Sea marine map thirteenth and seventeenth centuries ] in Black Sea in the Middle Ages. No. V. Ed. S.P.Karpova (St. Petersburg: "Aletheia", 2001), pp.40-107. [Those bibliographical details are uncertain. This leads to Excel tables of Black Sea names [the links are in the blue sections], based, in several cases, on now discredited datings, and superseded by Gordyeyev.] (See also another version (?) of this, also in Russian, here.)

Fonseca, Luís Adão da. Dal Mediterraneo all’Atlantico: Le scoperte e la formazione del mare océano nei secoli XIV-XVI (Pisa, 2004).

Fontoura da Costa, Abel. A Marinharia dos Descobrimentos. 4th edition (Lisbon: Edições Culturais da Marinha, 1983).

Frake, Charles O. 'Cognitive maps of time and tide among medieval seafarers', Man [Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland], New Series, 20:2 (1985): 254-70.

France, Fenella. 'Scientific and Image Analysis of Portolan Charts: Preliminary Results and Methods' [235-minute webcast of the talks given by Evelyn Edson, Alison Sandman, Richard Pflederer, John Hessler and Fenella France, at the Library of Congress on 21 May 2010; requires RealPlayer.]

Freiesleben, Hans-Christian. 1985. 'Die Entstehung der Portolankarten im Bereich sizilianischer Flottenpolitik', in: Wolfgang Scharfe & Eckhard Jäger (eds) Kartographiehistorisches Colloquium Lüneburg '84: Vorträge (Berlin: Reimer, 1985): 153-9.
    -- 1983. 'The Still Undiscovered Origin of the Portolan Charts', Journal of Navigation, 36: 1 (1983): 124-29

Freitag, Barbara. Hy Brasil: the metamorphosis of an island from cartographic error to Celtic Elysium. Textxet. Studies in Comparative Literature 69 (Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi, 2013). [Chapter 1: 'The cartographic history of Brasil Island', pp.3-30; Appendix: 'Cartographic appearances of Brasil Island', pp. 265-97.]

Friedman, John Block & Kristen Mossler Figg (eds), Trade, Travel, and Exploration in the Middle Ages: an Encyclopedia) (London: Routledge, 2016).

Fuson, Robert H. Legendary islands of the Ocean Sea (Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, 1995). [Reviewed in Terrae Incognitae 27 (1995): 84-5.]

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Galichian, Rouben. Countries south of the Caucasus in medieval maps: Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan (Yerevan: Printinfo Art Books, London: Gomidas Institute, 2007). [The full text of the illustrated 208-page book.]

Galliano, Graziella. 2009. 'Mauro, Giovanni (Giovanni da Carignano)', in Dizionario biografico degli Italiani, LXXII (Rome, 2008), 399–401.
    -- 1995. ‘Alcune osservazioni sulla carta anonima catalana della Biblioteca Estense di Modena e la carta di Albino de Canepa’, Momenti e problemi della geografìa contemporanea. Atti del Convegno Internazionale in onore di Giuseppe Caraci geografo storico e umanista (Roma, 24-25 novembre 1993), Rome, Centro Italiano per gli Studi Storico-Geografici (CISGE). (Genoa, Brigati: 1995) pp. 477-491. [Comparing the toponymy, between Gibraltar and Trieste, of the Catalan Estense map and the 1480 Canepa chart (pp. 483-91.]

Gambin, Marie-Thérèse. 'L'histoire des cartes à rumbs', IREM Paris VII (1996).

Gambin, Timmy [Timothy] G. 2014. 'Maritime activity and the Divine – an overview of religious expression by Mediterranean seafarers, fishermen and travellers', in: Dionisius A. Agius, et al. (eds), Ships, Saints and Sealore: Cultural Heritage and Ethnography of the Mediterranean and the Red Sea (Archaeopress Oxford, 2014): 3-12.
    -- 2004. 'Malta and the Mediterranean shipping lanes in the Middle Ages', in Lorenza De Maria & Rita Turchetti (eds), Rotte e porti del Mediterraneo dopo la caduta dell'Impero romano d'Occidente. Continuità e tecnologiche e funzionali. IV Seminario, Genova, 18-19 giugno 2004. (Soveria Mannelli: Rubbettino, 2004), pp.115-33.

Garcia, José Manuel, 'Uma nova carta de marear: notícia do seu descobrimento', Oceanos 5 (1990): 25-8. (Census E.8(A), ex Cabeço de Vide).

García Sánchez, Enrique. Cartografía náutica medieval: Una síntesis bibliográfica (Academia.edu, 15 August 2016). [A major, very up to date, partially annotated, classified bibliography of the subject, spread over 105 pages. With its comprehensive coverage of both current and past works, it should, from now on, be considered the place to start any investigation. It is arranged in seven sections: 1. Obras generales (p.3); 2. Testimonios sobre cartografía náutica en fuentes medievales (p.44); 3.Cartas náuticas en obras literarias y geográfico-históricas (p.54); 4.Cartógrafos (p.60); 5. Cartas anónimas (p.84); 6. Los primeros portulanos escritos (p.98); and 7. Cartas islámicas (p.102); with numerous other sub-categories.]

Gaspar, Joaquim Alves. 2023. 'The origin of nautical cartography: certitudes, doubts, and perplexities', International Journal of Cartography, July 2023. ['The purpose of this article is to appraise the present state of knowledge regarding the so-called “origins problem”'. In my view this is a major contribution to the ‘origins’ debate in a clear, detailed and thoroughly balanced review, buttressed by fresh complex geometrical evidence.]
    -- 2019. 'The Liber de existencia riveriarum (c. 1200) and the Birth of Nautical Cartography'. Imago Mundi, 71:1 (2019): 1-21. ["It is suggested that some of the pelagic courses in the Liber were compiled from an existing chart, which may have been used as a general reference for the work".]
    -- 2017. 'The Liber de existencia riveriarum (ca.1200) and the birth of nautical cartography (text)' (with the accompanying Powerpoint). Paper delivered at the 27th International Conference on the History of Cartography (Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 10 July 2017).
    -- 2016(a). 'Cartometric and modelling techniques in the study of portolan charts' (with the accompanying illustrations). Paper delivered at the First International Workshop on the origin and evolution of portolan charts (Museu de Marinha, Lisbon, 6-7 June 2016).
    -- 2016(b). 'Some historiographical notes on the origin of portolan charts' (with the accompanying illustrations). Paper delivered at the First International Workshop on the origin and evolution of portolan charts (Museu de Marinha, Lisbon, 6-7 June 2016).
    -- 2016(c). Maps and nautical charts in the medieval and early modern ages: two of a kind or different cartographic paradigms? (with the accompanying illustrations). Jay Kislak Lecture, Library of Congress, (October?) 2016.
    -- 2015. 'How old are portolan chart really' . Review of Roel Nicolai's article, in Brussels Map Circle Newsletter 53 (September 2015): 20-4. [The original article, summarising his doctoral thesis, appeared in Newsletter 52.] [Also Here.]
    -- 2013(a). 'From the portolan chart to the latitude chart: the silent cartographic revolution' Cartes et géomatique, 216 (June 2013): 67-77 (paper delivered at the international conference, 'D'une technique à une culture: les cartes marines du XIIIe au XVIIIe siècle', Paris 3 December 2012).
    -- 2013(b).
'Juan de la Cosa la fizo en año de 1500'. Revisiting the old nautical planisphere with a new quantitative approach (paper delivered at the 25th International Conference on the History of Cartography, Helsinki, 30 June–6 July 2013. [Concluding: "... no latitudes were incorporated into the representation despite the presence of the equator and the tropic of Cancer. Like all other portolan charts of the time, this chart was still based on magnetic directions and estimated distances only ... being still based on the old portolan chartmodel, it was also a technical dead end. The role of cartographic model for the sixteenth century was clearly reserved for the Cantino planisphere, constructed two years later".]
    -- 2012(a). 'Blunders, errors and entanglements: scrutinizing the Cantino planisphere with a cartometric eye', Imago Mundi, 64:2 (2012): 181-200.
    -- 2012(b). 'Da carta portulano à carta de latitudes: a revolução silenciosa da cartografia náutica no início do século xvi' [Powerpoint for a talk to the IV Simpósio Ibero-Americano de História da Cartografia, 11-14 September 2012].
    -- 2011. 'Using Empirical Map Projections for Modeling Early Nautical Charts', in: Anne Ruas (ed.), Advances in Cartography and GIScience. Volume 2, Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography, 2011, Volume 6, Part 3 (Springer, 2011) pp. 227-47.
    -- 2010(a). Doctoral dissertation, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, ISEGI, September 2010. 'From the portolan chart of the Mediterranean to the plane chart of the Atlantic: cartometric analysis and modelling'. [Also Here.]
    -- 2010(b). 'From the portolan chart of the Mediterranean to the plane chart of the Atlantic: cartometric analysis and modelling' ['Doctoral Theses in Progress'], Imago Mundi 62:1 (2010): 119-20.
    -- 2009. ‘Revisitando a Cartografia Náutica Portuguesa Antiga do Atlântico: uma análise quantitativa’, Actas do III Simpósio Luso-Brasileiro de Cartografia Histórica (Ouro Preto, Brazil, 10-13 November 2009).
    -- 2008(a). 'Dead reckoning and magnetic declination: unveiling the mystery of portolan charts' (illustrated article, in: e-Perimetron, 3:4 (2008), pp. 191-203) [also: Barcelona: International Cartographic Association; Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya, 2008.]
    -- 2008(b). 'António Barbosa and the myth of the square chart', in: Proceedings of the XIV International Meeting for the History of Nautical Science (Universidade de Coimbra - Departamento de Matemática, 23-25 October, 2008).
    -- 2007. 'The myth of the square chart' (illustrated article, in: e-Perimetron, 2:2 (2007), pp. 66-79).
    -- 2005. 'Qual o sistema de projecção das cartas de marear', Anais do Clube Militar Naval 135 (2005): 313-43.

Gaspar, Joaquim Alves & Henrique Leitão. 'Early Modern Nautical Charts and Maps: Working Through Different Cartographic Paradigms', Journal of early modern history 23 (2019): 1-28.

Gaspar, Joaquim Alves & Šima Krtalić. A Cartografia de Magalhães / The Cartography of Magellan. 2nd edition. (Vila Verde, Portugal: Tradisom, 2024). [In bilingual Portuguese and English, this work focuses on 33 maps and marine charts, 11 of which are from the 15th century, starting with Gabriel de Vallseca (1439). It was first published in 2023; the link cited here is to the 2024 edition.]

Gautier Dalché, Patrick. 2019. 'Les cartes marines comme source de réflexion géographique au XVe siècle', in: Baumgärtner, Ingrid (et al., eds), Maps and Travel in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period. Knowledge, Imagination, and Visual Culture. Das Mittelalter, 9. (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2019), pp.165-88. [English abstract.]
    -- 2017. 'La carte marine au Moyen Age: outil technique, objet symbolique', in: Christian Buchet and Michel Balard (ed.), The Sea in History. The Medieval World / La mer dans l’histoire. Le Moyen Âge (Boydell and Brewer, 2017), pp. 101-14.
    -- 2017. Liste des Publications.
    -- 2015. 'Maps, travel and exploration in the Middle Ages: some reflections about anachronism', The Historical Review / La Revue Historique, XII (2015): 143-62. [Various functions of portolan charts are identified, pp.153-7.] [Also here]
    -- 2013. 'La connaissance des regions septentrionales de l'Europe durant le haut Moyen Age: un changement de point de vue'. Proceedings of the colloquium, 'Zwischen Fiktion und Realität. Der Norden in der Literatur von der Antike bis zur Renaissance (Berlin, 9-11 April 2013). [Forthcoming, 2014]
    -- 2012. 'Les cartes marines: origines, caractères, usages. À propos de deux ouvrages récents', Geographia Antiqua: rivista di geografia storica del mondo antico e di storia della geografia, 20-21 (2011-12): 15-27. [Focusing on the origin question and the significance of the 'Liber de existencia riveriarium', in the context of a critical review of Pujades (2007a) and supportive comments on Billion (2011a).]
    -- 2011. 'Les côtes de Lycie et de Carie dans les portulans medievaux', Anatolia Antiqua 19 (2011): 433-9.
    -- 2010. 'Cartes, réflexion stratégique et projets de croisade à la fin du XIIIe et au début du XIVe siècle: une initiative franciscaine?', Francia. Forschungen zur westeuropäischen Geschichte 37 (2010): 77-95.[Including a 1279 reference to the value of portolan charts, e.g. for warning of marine dangers, in the 'De Regimine Principum' of Egidio Colonna (Gilles de Rome); also relevant for the Vesconte charts found in the Sanudo manuscript.]
    -- 2009(a). La Géographie de Ptolémée en occident (IVe-XVIe siècle) (Turnhout: Brepols, 2009). ['Calcul des coordonnées vraies sur une carte marine: Paolo dell'Abbaco', pp.127-31.]
    -- 2009(b). 'Qu'est-ce qu'un port? Les données des portulans', Les ports et la navigation en Méditerranée au Moyen Age (Montpellier, 2009), pp. 233-9.
    -- 2009(c). 'Usages critiques et scientifiques de la carte marine au XIVe siècle: Pétrarque, Boccace, Paolo Dagomari', in: T. Michalsky, F. Schmieder & G. Engel (eds), Aufsicht - Ansicht - Einsicht. Neu Perspektiven auf die Kartographie an der Schwelle zur frühen Neuzeit (Berlin, 2009), pp.81-92.
    -- 2006. 'Pere Marsili, une carte majorquine (1313) et l' "ardua controversia" des vents', Itineraria 5 (2006): 153-70. [About an explanatory passage, dated 1313, in a Latin translation (from Catalan) by the Dominican Pere Marsili, then in the service of Jaume II of Aragon. This explains the wind systems and their nomenclature, used respectively by sailors and savants. Marsili describes a two-circle rhumb line system, which has a 'correspondance incontestable' with the 1339 Dulcert [Dulceti] chart, thus, in the author's contention, pushing back the earliest definite signs of Catalan chartmaking to the time of the first dated Italian chart in 1311 (p.158). However, it should be noted that some of the Italian charts assigned to the first quarter of the 14th century have two-circle systems, e.g. Cortona. Not surprisingly, these tend to have similar centre positions. Might Marsili perhaps have seen an Italian chart?]
    -- 2005. Du Yorkshire à l'Inde: une 'géographie' urbaine et maritime de la fin du XIIe siècle (Roger de Howden?). Hautes Études Médiévales et Modernes 89 (Geneva: Librarie Droz, 2005). [The third work discussed, 'De Viis Maris', is an account of a sea-voyage from York to Cornwall and thence Sicily in periplus form (attributed to Roger de Hovenden, fl. 1174-1201). It is interpreted as a contribution to the debate about the origin of the portolan charts - see review by Evelyn Edson in Imago Mundi 59:1 (2007):122-3.]
    -- 2004(a). 'Les sens de mappa (mundi): IVe-XIVe siècle', Archivum Latinitatis Medii Aevi (Bulletin du Cange) 62 (2004): 187-202. [Tracing instances of the term 'mappa' (from late Roman times) and 'mappa mundi' (from the 9th century), noting that from c.1200 (see the author's 'Carte marine et portulan' (1995)) the term began to be applied to portolan charts ('cartula mappe mundi') (p.190). It is, however, surprising that the next instance that he identifies as referring to a chart dates from almost a century later, in 1294. The author places the Guillaume de Nangis reference to Louis IX's voyage of 1270 under 'Avant 1300'. The concern here is specifically with 'mappa mundi' but the author would presumably have mentioned any other 13th-century term that apparently referred to a sea chart.]
    -- 2004(b). 'La carte marine au Moyen Âge. Un état de la question', in: P. Clergeot (ed.) Littoral: les cartes racontent (Paris, 2004), pp.14-23.
    -- 2002(a). 'Le temps et l'espace', in: J. Dalarun (ed.) Le Moyen Age en lumière. Manuscrits enluminés des bibliothèques de France (Paris: Fayard, 2002), pp.35-63. [Reproducing a sheet from the unsigned Lyons atlas, Census 8.]
    -- 2002(b). 'Portulans and the Byzantine world', in: R. Macrides (ed.) Travel in the Byzantine World (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2002), pp.59-71.
    -- 2001. 'Cartes marines, représentation du littoral et perception de l'espace au Moyen Âge. Un état de la question', Castrum 7 (2001): 9-32 - 'Zones côtières littorales dans le monde Méditerranéen au moyen âge: défense, peuplement, mise en valeur. Actes du colloque international organisé par l'Ecole française de Rome et la Casa de Velázquez'. [Available via Google Books.]
    -- 1998. 'Le renouvellement de la perception et de la représentation de l'espace au XIIe siècle', Renovación intelectual del Occidente Europeo (siglo XII). XXIV Semana de Estudios Medievales (Estella, 14-18 de julio de 1997). (Pamplona: Gobierno de Navarra, 1998), pp.169-217.
    -- 1996(a). 'Limite, frontière et organisation de l'espace dans la géographie et la cartographie de la fin du Moyen Age', in: Guy P. Marchal (ed.) Grenzen und Raumvorstellungen (11.-20. Jh) / Frontières et conceptions de l'espace (11e-20e siècles). Clio Lucernensis 3 (Zürich: Chronos, 1996): 93-122.
    -- 1996(b). 'Portulan', in: A. Vauchez (ed.) Dictionnaire encyclopédique du Moyen Age chrétien (Paris: Éditions du Cerf, 1996).
    -- 1996(c). 'Pour une histoire du regard géographique: conception et usage de la carte au XVe siècle', Micrologus. Natura, scienze e società medievali 4 (1996): 77-103.
    -- 1996(d). 'L'usage des cartes marines aux XIVe et XVe siècles', in: Spazi, tempi, misure e percorsi nell'Europa del basso medioevo. Atti del XXXII convegno storico internazionale (Todi, 8-11 ottobre 1995 - organised by the Centro italiano di studi sul basso medioevo - Accademia Tudertina) (Spoleto, 1996) pp. 97-128.
    -- 1995. Carte marine et portulan au XIIe siècle: le "Liber de existencia riveriarum et forma maris nostri Mediterranei" (Pise, circa 1200) (Rome: École française de Rome: distributor, Paris: Boccard, 1995). Collection de l'École Française de Rome 203.{NB. THE ENTIRE WORK WAS PLACED ONLINE IN FEBRUARY 2015.} [Including the full text of the Liber, with extensive introduction and commentary, a comparison with the (corrected) text of the 'Conpasso da navigare', a summary of the Liber's distances and maps showing its routes, as well as toponymic indexes to the 1,200 places mentioned in the Liber's text (with modern identifications where possible) and to those in the 'Conpasso', and an index to places associated with crusade routes. Unfortunately, it is not searchable. The important and influential work discussed - British Library, Cotton Domitian A.XIII, ff.114-129 - has persuaded most commentators that what we would recognise as portolan charts were in existence by about 1200, i.e. almost a century before the oldest survivors. Pujades (2007) p.316 reproduces the Prologue (ff.114v-115r). See, however, the note of caution urged in my - as I now understand - very superficial review in Imago Mundi 49 (1997): 184, and the comments in the update page to the Chapter in the History of Cartography, under 'Liber de existencia riveriarum'. Perhaps this assiduous author, or others, will find corroborating evidence to fill this perplexing lacuna. See also my comment above to the entry for the author's 'Les sens de mappa (mundi)' (2004), and the comments on the Black Sea content by Nenov, 2011.]
    -- 1994. 'Les savoirs géographiques en Méditerranée chrétienne (XIIIe s.), Micrologus. Natura, scienze e società medievali 2 (1994): 75-99 [discussing the 1270 Louis IX incident, pp.83-4.]
    -- 1992(a). 'D'une technique à la culture. Carte nautique et portulan au XIIe et au XIIIe siècle', L'uomo e il mare nella civiltà occidentale: da Ulisse a Cristoforo Colombo. Atti del convegno (Genova 1-4 giugno 1992). "Atti della Società Ligure di Storia Patria", 32 (1992): 284-312. [In which he examines the evidence for the existence of 12th-century textual portolans, pp.287-97 and, 307-8 discusses the 1270 Louis IX incident.]
    -- 1992(b). 'D'une technique à la culture. Carte nautique et portulan au XIIe et au XIIIe siècle', Bulletin de la Société nationale des antiquaires de France (1992): 398-9.

Gedz, Tetiana. 'The Crimea and the Sea of Azov on the map by Giovanni da Carignano, beginning of the fourteenth century'. [An 8-page illustrated article, dated 7 September 2015 - an English version of a Ukrainian original, dated 24 August 2015.]

Gentilli, G. 'Di alcune carte nautiche dei secolo XV-XVII conservate a Firenze nella Biblioteca del Principe Piero Ginori-Conti', Rivista geografica italiana 43 (1936): 253-92. [Compares the Aegean names from the unsigned 15th (?) century chart (Census 168) with those in Nordenskiöld's Periplus, providing modern identifications.]

Gertwagen, Ruthy. 2016. 'A chapter on maritime history: shipping and nautical technology in the medieval Mediterranean (11th-16th centuries)', in: Michael Borgolte & Nikolas Jaspert (eds), Maritimes Mittelalter: Meere als Kommunikationsräume, pp.109-48. Vorträge und Forschungen, Band 83, Herausgegeben vom Konstanzer Arbeitskreis für mittelalterliche Geschichte.
    -- 2006. 'Harbours and facilities along the eastern Mediterranean sea lanes to Outremer', in Pryor, John H. ed. Logistics of Warfare in the Age of the Crusades (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006), pp.95-118.

Ginard [Bujosa], Antoni, 2002-2006. La cartografia mallorquina a Mallorca (Palma de Mallorca: J.J. de Olañeta, 2002 - later edition 2006). (With notes on Catalan chartmakers and Catalan charts, particularly those kept in Majorca, e.g. the 1468 Benincasa (Census 129), and the anon charts (Census E.14(A) & E.13 )).
    -- 1995. (with Climent Picornell & Joana Maria Seguí) 'Cartes i atles conservats a Mallorca', in: Agustín Hernando (et al.) Cartografia Mallorquina (Barcelona: Diputació de Barcelona, 1995) pp.113-49.
    -- 1989. 'La conservació a Mallorca de la carta nàutica de Gabriel de Vallseca de 1439', El Mirall (Palma) 33 (1989): 89-90. (Census 128).

Gluzman, Renard. 'Between Venice and the Levant: re-evaluating maritime routes from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century', The Mariner’s Mirror 96, 3 (2010): 262-92. ["during this period, Venetian vessels sailed greater distances and much farther from the coast than had previously been thought, and that crossing open water was an integral part of any long distance voyage”.]

Goldie, Matthew Boyd. ‘An Early English Rutter: The Sea and Spatial Hermeneutics in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries’ Speculum, 90/3 (July 2015): 701-27. ['Given the relatively large quantity of available information about early owners, we also can begin to ask what this group of people might have found attractive about a navigational text'.]

Gómez-Paccard, Miriam, et al. 'The first archaeomagnetic secular variation curve for the Iberian Peninsula', Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 7, 2 (2006 or later?): 55-8.

González Arévalo, Raúl. 'La costa del Reino de Granada en la documentación náutica italiana siglos XIV-XVI', España Medieval 31 (2008): 7-36.

González Marrero, José Antonio & Carlos Medina Hernández. 'Estrategias para navegar: de Plinio a Isidoro de Sevilla', LingüÍstica y literatura, 62 (2012): 255-71.

Goodrich, Thomas D. 'Old Maps in the Library of Topkapi Palace in Istanbul', Imago Mundi 45 (1993):120-33. [Including a bibliography and map list - of relevance for Census 132, 133-5 (= H 1826-8, p.130), 136 (= H 1823, p.129), 137 (=GI 47, p.125)].

Gordyeyev [or Gordeev, Gordieiev], Anton. 2022. Toponyms on portolan charts within “normal portolano” by AE Nordenskiold (continuous coastline from the Baltic to North Africa, as well as England and Ireland) (self-published in Kyiv in December 2022, despite the disruptions caused by the Russian invasion).
    -- 2020. Part 1 - Historical Overview of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov Cartography from Antiquity to XVI Century (Kyiv: DU State Hydrography, 2020) [62 pages; Bilingual Ukrainian/English.]
    -- 2019. [Ukrainian title: translated as, Toponymy of the Black and Azov Seas on portolan charts of the XIV-XVII centuries. With English abstract; a 710-page book.]
    -- 2017. [Ukrainian title: translated as: 'Place names of the Black Sea and Sea of Azov coasts from portolan charts of XIV-XVII centuries. 2-th issue'.] [For online access to this two-volume publication see his Academia page (the URL is very long).]
    -- 2017. [Ukrainian title: translated as: 'Toponyms of the Black Sea on Benincasa Grazióso portolan charts (1463-1482)'.]
    -- 2015. 'Place names of the Black Sea and Sea of Azov coasts from portolan charts of XIV-XVII centuries' (Kiev: Academia.edu, 2015). [The entire text of the 544-page book, comprising, inter alia, transcriptions, with modern identications, of the 241 distinct toponyms from 299 atlases and charts, ranged across 20 sequences. For each name group there are comparative details from early and modern charts. The names are discussed individually. There is an explanation of a proposed statistical methodology for determining the dating and attribution of charts (pp.495-503), a summary table (pp.504-8) of the names, listing their first and last appearance, a list of the works consulted (pp.521-39) and a general map at the very end.] [Note: this is an English-language version of the text previously issued, in Russian, in 2014. Also available Here, with a title starting 'Monography'.]
    -- 2015. [Ukrainian title: translated as: 'A newly discovered manuscript atlas of nautical charts in the Manuscript department of the National Library of Ukraine (Vernandskiy)'.] The extract (pp.353-65 - from the Vernadsky Library magazine?) is headed, in translation: 'UDC 912 (0.032) "1474" Benincasa: 027.021 (477-25) Vernadsky National Library' (2015). [It describes the rediscovery of the 1474 Benincasa atlas in Kiev and states it has 'reconstructed Grazioso Benincasa’s biography, given the table of his famous maps and atlases (with titles, dates and current location) and provided the bibliography relevant to the subject of our research.' To download see Here.]
    -- 2015. [Ukrainian title, and:] [Portolanos charts of the Black Sea] (Kiev, 2015).
    -- 2014. [Ukrainian title, and:] [Statistical method for the identification of anonymous maps] (using the example of portolan charts). 2014
    -- 2014. [Ukrainian title, and:] 'Analysis of toponyms on portolan charts of Pietro Veskonte dated 1311–1321', Izvestiya RAN. Geographical Series 6 (2014): 123-36. [In Ukrainian (?), but click 'more', twice, on the Academia entry to see an English abstract, which includes "The hypothesis of migration of cartographer from Genoa to Venice after 1313 is tested. The influence of Marino Sanudo on the edition of toponyms of western part of the Black Sea on the portolan charts of Pietro Veskonte dated 1320–1321".]
    -- [No date - seen 2014]. Cartography of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov: Retrospective. Up to 1700 . [242 pages, comprising a catalogue of 294 maps, illustrated with thumbnail illustrations.].
    -- 2013(a). 'Analiz toponimiv regionu Chornogo moria na kartach-portolanach Vesconte Petra 1311-1321 rr' [Analysis of place names from the Black Sea region from portolan charts by Peter Vesconte], Visnik Geodezii ta Kartographii, No.5, (86)(2013): 36-45. [In Ukrainian.]
    -- 2013(b). 'Analiz toponimiv regionu Chornogo moria na kartach-portolanach Dulcerta Angelino 1325-1339 rr.' [Analysis of place names of the Black Sea region from portolan charts by Dulcert Angelino of 1325-1339], Visnik Geodezii ta Kartographii, No.6, (87)(2013): 20-29. [In Ukrainian.]
    -- 2013(c). [A national view on the research into portolan charts], Visnik Geodezii ta Kartographii, No.6, (87)(2013): 52-4. [In Ukrainian.]
    -- 2010. 'Portolani: teoria i metodika istorico-kartografichnogo doslidzenia'. [Portolan charts: the theory and method of historical-cartographical research]. The higher degree: Doctor of Science Dissertation, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev (Ukraine), Geography Department, May 2010.
    -- 2009. Karti-portolani XIII-XVII st.: osoblivosti ta rol u rozvitku kartographii [Portolan charts of XIII-XVII c.: characteristics and role in the development of cartography] (Kiev, 2009). [In Ukrainian.]
    -- 2006.
Cartography of Black Sea and Sea of Azov: Retrospective (Kiev, 2006). [242 pages, describing 289 maps, most with thumbnail illustrations.] [Also A CD-ROM, Cartographia Chernogo i Azovskogo morey: Retrospectiva, in Russian: Part 1 up to 1500, Part 2 1500-1600, Part 3 1600-1700 - with a second CD, co-authored with V. Bulatov, covering the period 1700-1800 (Moscow, 2007)].
    see also his full list of publications on academia.edu.

Gorreri, Silvana. Carte per navigare: la raccolta di portolani della Biblioteca Palatina di Parma (Parma: Monte Università Parma, 2009). [Accompanying an exhibition.]

Gozalbes Cravioto, Carlos. 2008. 'La costa del Rif en la cartografía medieval', in: VII Estudios de frontera: Islam y cristianismo: siglos XII-XVI. Actas. (Jaen: Diputación de Jaen, [2008]).
    -- 2004. 'Tarifa en la geografía medieval: fuentes cartográficas (y II)', Aljaranda 54 (December, 2004).
    -- 2000. 'La costa de Almería en los itinerarios de peregrinos y portulanos medievales', Revista del Instituto egipcio de estudios islámicos 32 (2000): 119-41.
    -- 1997(a). Ceuta en los portulanos medievales, siglos XIII, XIV, y XV (Ceuta: Instituto de Estudios Ceutíes, 1997) [including sections on Islamic authors and a table of comparative toponyms for Ceuta].
    -- 1997(b). 'La frontera oriental nazarí en los portulanos medievales', in: Pedro Segura Artero (ed.), Actas del congreso La Frontera oriental nazarí como sujeto histórico (s. XIII-XVI), Lorca-Vera, 22 a 24 de noviembre de 1994 (Almería: Instituto de Estudios Almerienses, Diputación de Almería, 1997), pp. 451-65. [Comparing the toponyms for south-eastern Spain between Almuñécar and Vera on 18 charts.] [Also HERE.]
    -- 1996. 'La frontera terrestre nazarí en la cartografía medieval', in: Estudios de la frontera: Alcalá la Real y el Arcipreste de Hita. Congreso internacional celebrado en Alcalá la Real, del 22 al 25 de noviembre de 1995. ([Jaen]: Diputación de Jaen, 1996) pp. 357-70.
    -- 1995. 'La costa del Campo de Gibraltar en los portulanos medievales', Almoraima 13 (1995): 163-74.

Graauw, Arthur de. A catalogue of Ancient Ports and Harbours ('a list of around 3400 ancient ports based on the writings of 66 ancient authors and a few modern authors ... This work is published in 4 volumes, all available in pdf versions, and most of it is reproduced on this web site'; the 6th edition (June 2017) contains over 4,300 places)
    -- 2016. 'Catalogue of potential ancient ports in the Black Sea', Méditerranée 126 (2016): 129-44. ('This paper presents a list and map of 388 known ancient harbours in the Black Sea and Azov Sea, and concludes that ancient ports are probably still to be found in Ukraine and southern Russia')

Greenberg, Isidore. 'Navigation and portolan charts', Journal. Israeli Map Collectors Society 10 (1993): 33-6.

Guerreiro, Inácio. 1997.'As cartas portuguesas de quatrocentos', in: Fernando Gomes Pedrosa, Navios, marinheiros e arte de navegar 1139-1499. História da Marinha Portuguesa. (Lisbon: Academia de Marinha, 1997), pp.308-17.
    -- 1992. A carta náutica de Jorge de Aguiar de 1492 [The nautical map of Jorge de Aguiar of 1492] (Lisbon: Academia de Marinha, 1992). [Also an English translation by Manuel Leitão and including a facsimile and full transcription of the toponymy - Census 146].
    -- 1990. 'A cartografia portuguesa dos séculos XV e XVI', in: História dos Descobrimentos e Expansão Portuguesa (Lisbon, Universidade Aberta, 1990) pp. 198-234.

Guillemot, Gérard & Gabriele Coassin. Carte da navigar: portolani e carte nautiche 1378-1732 (Venice: Giunta regionale del Veneto, Dipartimento per l'informazione, 1990). [a 19-minute video, based apparently on the collection of the Museo Correr, issued by (?) Blow Up Audiovisivi, Treviso.]

Guillén y Tato, Julio F. 'An unpublished atlas of J. Martinez (1591)', Imago Mundi 12 (1955): 107-26. [Including the full list of toponyms. Note that some of the name forms are unconvincing and unlike other Martines charts.]

Guinard, Antoni. 'Els trets estilístics de la cartografia mallorquina', Treballs de geografia 39 (1988): 9-16.

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Halpern, Galia. '“Fetch a Few Good Sailors to Explain the Mappamundi”: Vernacular Geography in the Time of Charles V of France', Paper presented to the Max-Planck Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florence, Art, Space and Mobility International Workshop (September 8-10, 2011). (NB. Footnote details are not included). [Discussing Mandeville's Travels and the Catalan Atlas (Census 28), on which it is commented that if Cresques Abraham was not available to explain its contents a 'few good sailors' could do so.]

Harte, Julia. 'How one Fourteenth-Century Venetian Remembered the Crusades: The Maps and Memories of Marino Sanuto' (Penn History Review 15,2 (Spring 2008), Article 2)

Harvey, Paul D.A. 2009. 'Colour in medieval maps', in: John Cherry & Ann Payne (eds) Signs and Symbols. Proceedings of the 2006 Harlaxton Symposium. Harlaxton Medieval Studies XVIII (Donington, Lincolnshire: Shaun Tyas, 2009) pp. 42-52, especially 51-2.
    -- 1991. Medieval Maps (London: British Library, 1991). [e.g. Chapter 3, 'Portolan charts before 1400', pp. 38-50; several others (all from the BL collections) are discussed and illustrated in Chapter 4.] [The British Library later put up an illustrated summary of the portolan chart chapter.]

Heitzmann, Christian. Europas Weltbild in alten Karten. Globalisierung im Zeitalter der Entdeckungen (Wolfenbüttel: Herzog August Bibliothek, 2006). [Discussing the 1497 Freducci chart (Census 39)].

Herbert, Francis. 'Gråberg af Hemsö, the Royal Geographical Society, the Foreign Office, and portolan charts for the British Library', in: Göran Bäärnhielm, Folke Sandgren and Anders Burius (eds) Accurata Descriptio: Studier i Kartografi, Numismatik, Orientalistik, och Biblioteksväsen tillägnade Ulla Ehrensvärd / Papers in Cartography, Numismatics, Oriental Studies, and Librarianship presented to Ulla Ehrensvärd. Acta Bibliothecæ Regiæ Stockholmiensis 69 (Stockholm: Kungliga Biblioteket, 2003) pp. [269]-314. [About the provenance of the 1467 and 1473 Benincasa atlases in the British Library (Census 44 and 54). There is some confusion about the Payne & Foss MS catalogue of 1835 and the Porri of Siena MS catalogue of 1836, and John Holmes's comments on this; on Holmes see the update page to the 'Chapter', under 'Calendars'].

Hermanski, Ulrich & Hans Theo Nothofer. 1986(a). 'Rechnergestützte Untersuchung zur geometrischen Struktur von Portolankarten', Der Vermessungsingenieur, 37 (1986): 74-75.
    -- 1986(b). 'Rechnergestützte Untersuchungen zur geometrischen Struktur von Portolankarten', unveröffentlichte Diplomarbeit, Universität Essen, FB Vermessungswesen, 1986.

Hernando, Agustín. 'La cartografia Mallorquina de la Baixa Edat Mitjana', in: A. Hernando (et al., eds), Cartografia Mallorquina (Barcelona: Diputació de Barcelona, 1995) pp.11-69.

Herrera Casais, Mónica. 2017. El atlas de 1571 de Ali al-Sharafi de Sfax: Estudio parcial, edición crítica y traducción anotada'. Doctoral dissertation, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands, September 2017.
    -- 2012. 'Un mar para navegar, imaginar y compartir: la imagen del Mediterráneo y otras geografías en la carta náutica de Ibrāhīm al-Mursī', in: Maria Domingo & Iolanda Muña (eds), Investigación, conservación y restauración de materiales y objetos cartográficos. Actas del curso celebrado en el Instituto del Patrimonio Cultural de España en noviembre de 2010 (Madrid: Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte, 2012) pp. 42-55.
    -- 2011. 'Un mar para navegar, imaginar y compartir: la imagen del Mediterráneo y otras geografías en la carta náutica de Ibrâhîm al-Mursî, 1461', in: C. Díez Esteban (coord.) Investigación, conservación y restauración de materiales y objetos cartográficos. Actas del curso celebrado en el Instituto del Patrimonio Cultural de España, noviembre de 2010. (Madrid: Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte, [2011]) pp.42-55.
    -- 2009. 'Granada en los atlas náuticos de al-Šharafī, e identificación de un modelo mallorquín para la carta de al-Mursī / Granada in Al-Šharafī's nautical atlases and identification of a Majorcan model for Al-Mursī's chart', Al-Qantara: Revista de Estudios Arabes (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas) 30, 1 (2009): 221-35 (with English abstract - Census 132).
    -- 2008(a). 'The Nautical Atlases of Alī al-Sharafī', Suhayl 8 (2008): 223-63. [About two atlases by the Tunisian chartmaker of 1551 & 1571. 'The making, contents and characteristics of the atlases are examined in connection with the Maghrebi and Majorcan traditions of nautical cartography which positively influenced al-Sharafī’s compilation of coastal place names.]
    -- 2008(b). 'The 1413-14 sea chart of Ahmad al-Ţanjī', in: Emilia Calvo, Mercè Comes, Roser Puig & Mónica Rius (eds) A shared legacy: Islamic science East and West. Homage to Prof. J.M. Millàs Vallicrosa (Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona, 2008) pp.283-307. (Census 127 & 136 - under Kâtibî).

Hessler, John. 2010(a). Random Walks Across the Atlantic: Stochastic Processes and the Geometry of the Early Renaissance Portolan Chart (Warping History blog, 8 January 2011).
    -- 2010(b). 'Bi-dimensional Regression Revisited: Studying the Mathematical Structure and Form of the Portolan Chart'. [235-minute webcast of the talks given by Evelyn Edson, Alison Sandman, Richard Pflederer, John Hessler and Fenella France, at the Library of Congress on 21 May 2010; requires RealPlayer.] See also the introduction to that talk, 'Bi-dimensional Regression Revisited: Studies in the geometry and form of the Medieval Portolan Chart' (Warping History blog, 14 July 2010).
    -- See also under Rehmeyer.

Hiatt, Alfred. Terra Incognita: Mapping the Antipodes before 1600 (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2008).

Hild, Friedrich. 2019. Karien in den Portulanen und Portulankarten von der Antike bis in die frühosmanische Zeit. Denkschriften der philosophisch-historischen Klasse, Band: 514; Veröffentlichungen zur Byzanzforschung, Band: 43 (Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2019), pp. 159-78.
    -- 2018. 'Niederlassungen der Italiener und Johanniter an den Küsten Kleinasiens im Spiegel der mittelalterlichen Portulane und Portulankarten', in: Falko Daim, et al. (eds), Menschen, Bilder, Sprache, Dinge. Wege der Kommunikation zwischen Byzanz und dem Westen 2: Menschen und Worte (Romisch Germanisches Zentralmuseum / Byzanz Zwischen Orient und Okzident, Band 9) (Verlag des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums, Mainz: 2018), pp. 193-204.
    -- 2017. 'Die Katalanische Weltkarte des Abraham Cresques von 1375 und die Küste Kariens', in: Andreas Külzer & Mihailo St. Popovic (eds), Space, Landscapes and Settlements in Byzantium: Studies in Historical Geography of the Eastern Mediterranean (Vienna, Novisad: 2017).

    -- 2004. 'Die lykische Ostküste in den Portulanen und Seekarten', in: Wiener Byzantinistik und Neogräzistik. Beiträge zum Symposion Vierzig Jahre Institut für Byzantinistik und Neogräzistik der Universität Wien im Gedenken an Herbert Hunger (Wien, 4.-7. Dezember 2002). (Byzantina et Neograeca Vindobonensia 24). (Vienna, 2004), pp.190-202. [About Lycia, southern Anatolia.]

Hirsch, Bertrand. 1991. 'Connaissance et figures de l’Ethiopie dans la cartographie occidentale du 14e siècle au 16e siècle'. Doctoral thesis, Université de Paris 1, 1991.
    -- 1990. 'L’espace Nubien et Éthiopien sur les cartes portulans du XIVe siècle', Médiévales 18 (1990): 62-92.

Hocquet, Jean-Claude. 1991. 'La gente di mare', in: Alberto Tenenti & Ugo Tucci (eds) Storia di Venezia. Vol. XII. Il mare (Rome: Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana, 1991) pp. 481-526.
    -- 1990. 'Les routes maritimes du commerce vénitien aux XVe et XVIe siècles', Atti del V Convegno Internazionale di Studi Colombiani "Navi e Navigazione nei Secoli XV e XVI" Genova, 26-28 ottobre 1987 (Genoa: Civico Istituto Colombiano, 1990), pp.579-605.
    -- 1981. 'Gens de mar à Venise: diversité des statuts, conditions de vie et de travail sur les navires', in: Rosalba Ragosta (ed.), Le genti del mare Mediterraneo. XVII colloquio internazionale di storia marittima. Napoli, 28-31 gennaio 1980 (Naples: Lucio Pironti, 1981), 1:103-68.

Hofmann, Catherine. 2021. Bibliographie relative à la carte pisane [2021]. (A chronological listing, with a section on the exhibitions that featured it).
    -- 2012. 'Comment en fabrique un portulan et comment on s'en sert? (XIII-XVIIIe siècle)', La Géographie (2008): terre des hommes, 1547 (Paris: Société de Géographie, 2012): 11-19.
    -- 2010. Les cartes portulans conservées en France (a note on the 'Cartes et figures du monde' blog, 4 November 2010, about a project, run by Hélène Richard and Catherine Hofmann, to describe, identify and digitise all the portolan charts and atlases preserved in French public collections).

Hofmann, Catherine, Hélène Richard & Emmanuelle Vagnon (eds). L'Åge d'or des cartes marines; quand l'Europe découvrait le monde (Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France & Seuil, 2012). [Catalogue of the major exhibition (including loaned material) at the Bibliothèque nationale de France (site François-Mitterand), October 2012-January 2013 - the catalogue entries supplemented with introductory notes (most by external invited experts) and heavily illustrated. See also the 'virtual exhibition' of enlargeable charts and details as well as a seven-screen section on 'gallica' entitled "Cartes et atlas nautiques de la Méditerranée"; and commentary and images for iPad. Illustrated comments on the treatment of the distorted vellum of some of the large portolan charts in the exhibition can be found in La restauration des cartes portulans par l'atelier de restauration des Cartes et plans de la BnF.]

Holland, Kathleen. 'Looking Beyond: Globalization in the Catalan Atlas of the Fourteenth Century'. Fifth Annual Graduate Student Symposium: Language and Communication in the Middle Ages: the Visual, the Lyrical, the Liturgical, the Legal, the Dramatic, the Kinetic, the Spatial, Translation, Lingua Franca, and Literacy (University of North Texas, Denton, 4-5 February 2010). 48 pp.

Horstmann, Hans. Vor- und Frühgeschichte des europäischen Flaggenwesens: die Rechtszeichen der europäischen Schiffe im Mittelalter (Bremen: Schünemann Universitätsverlag, 1971),

Houssaye Michienzi, Ingrid & Emmanuelle Vagnon[-Chureau]. 'Commissioning and Use of Charts Made in Majorca c.1400: New Evidence from a Tuscan Merchant's Archive', Imago Mundi 71:1 (2019): 22-33. [Commercial information derived from the Datini archive in Prato.]
    -- see also under Vagnon

Hughes, Paul. 'Roger of Howden's sailing directions for the English coast', Historical Research, 85, issue 230 (November 2012): 576-96.

Hurtado García, José Antonio. 'El cálculo de la longitud en el medievo: la Carta Pisana'. (May 2005?), 17 pp.

Hyde, John Kenneth. 'Navigation of the eastern Mediterranean in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries according to pilgrims' books', in: H.M. Blake, T.W. Potter & D.B. Whitehouse (eds) Papers in Italian Archaeology I. BAR Supplementary Series 41 (vol.2). 1978, pp.521-39.

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Irás, Krisztina. 'Hungary on Two Portolan Charts by Angelino Dulcert [Dulceti] (1325/30, 1339)', Imago Mundi 59:2 (2007): 223-31 [on Census 166 & 13].

Iwanczak, Wojciech, ‘La mer Baltique dans la cartographie médiévale’, in Alban Gautier & Sébastien Rossignol (eds.), De la mer du Nord à la mer Baltique. Identités, contacts et communications au Moyen Âge. Institut des recherches historiques du Septentrion (Université de Lille, 2012), pp.27-44.

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Jacoby, David. 2017. Western commercial and Colonial Expansion in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea in the Late Middle Ages, in Gherardo Ortalli & Alessio Sopracasa (eds), Rapporti Mediterranei, pratiche documentarie, presenze veneziane: le reti economiche e culturali (XIV - XVI secolo) (Venice, 2017), pp.3-49.
    -- 2016. ‘Evolving Routes of Western Pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Eleventh to Fifteenth Century: an Overview’, in: Klaus Herbers / Hans Christian Lehner (eds) Unterwegs im Namen der Religion II / On the Road in the Name of Religion II. Wege und Ziele in vergleichender Perspektive – das mittelalterliche Europa und Asien /Ways and Destinations in Comparative Perspective – Medieval Europe and Asia (Stuttgart: Steiner Verlag, 2016), pp.75-97.
    -- 2014.Travellers, Merchants and Settlers in the Eastern Mediterranean, 11th-14th Centuries (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014). [Eleven articles previously published elsewhere, see review by Wei-sheng Lin, 2014.]
    -- 2012. 'An Unpublished Medieval Portolan of the Mediterranean in Minneapolis', in: Ruthy Gertwagen and Elizabeth Jeffreys (eds), Shipping, Trade and Crusade in the Medieval Mediterranean: Studies in Honour of John Pryor (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012), pp. 65-83. [About the portolan of the Adriatic and Mediterrean, at the James Ford Bell Library of the University of Minnesota, '1300 Po.' It is argued that the extant 15th-century version is derived from an original of the first part of the 13th century. Includes detailed comparisons with other earlier portolani. The chapter's 'References' cite a number of studies of individual medieval ports. For the full text see the UMedia site.]
    -- 2009. Latins, Greeks and Muslims: encounters in the Eastern Mediterranean, tenth–fifteenth centuries. Variorum Collected Studies Series: CS914. (Farnham: Ashgate, 2009).
    -- 2008. 'Marino Sanudo Torsello on Trade Routes, Commodities, and Taxation', in: Chryssa A. Maltezou, et al. (eds), Philanagnostes. Studi in onore di Marino Zorzi (Venice: Istituto ellenico di studi bizantini e postbizantini di Venezia, 2008), pp.185-97.
    -- 2007(a). 'Byzantium, the Italian maritime powers, and the Black Sea before 1204', Byzantinische Zeitschrift, 100 (2007):677-99. [Including, p.680, evidence for open-sea sailing before the 13th century.]
    -- 2007(b). 'The Pisan commercial manual of 1278 in the Mediterranean context', in: Franco Cardini and Maria Luisa Ceccarelli Lemut (eds), “Quel mar che la terra inghirlanda”. Studi mediterranei in ricordo di Marco Tangheroni. Volume 2 (Pisa: Pacini, 2007), pp. 449–64.
    -- 2007(c). 'A Venetian sailing to Acre in 1282: Between private shipping and privately operated state galleys', in: Iris Shagrir, et al. (ed.), In Laudem Hierosolymitani: Studies in Crusades and Medieval Culture in Honour of Benjamin Z. Kedar (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), pp.395-410.
    -- 1997. ‘Byzantine Crete in the Navigation and Trade Networks of Venice and Genoa’, in Laura Balletto (ed.), Oriente e Occidente tra medioevo ed età moderna. Studi in onore di Geo Pistarino, Università degli Studi di Genova, Sede di Acqui Terme, Collana di Fonti e Studi, 1.1 (Acqui Terme, 1997), pp. 517-40 [reprinted in David frantz, Byzantium, Latin Romania and the Mediterranean. Variorum Collected Studies Series 703 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001), no. II].
[See pp.536-7?, where 12th century open-sea voyages are disussed.]
    -- 1986. 'A Venetian manual of commercial practice from Crusader Acre', in: Gabriella Airaldi & Benjamin Z. Kedar (eds), I Comuni italiani nel regno crociato di Gerusalemme: atti del colloquio (Jerusalem, May 24 - May 28, 1984). Collana storica di fonti e studi, 48 (Genoa, 1986): 401-28. [On the 13th-century portolano fragment in Venice, Marciana, Cl.XI,87 (7353.]

Janni, Pietro. La mappa e il periplo. Cartografia antica e spazio odologico. Pubblicazioni della Facoltà di lettere e filosofia dell'Università di Macerata 19. (Rome: Giorgio Bretschneider, 1984).

Jiménez Martínez, Mª Jesú & Miriam Villar Cano. < http://www.fglorente.org/libros/Conferencia%20Cartografia.pdf > 'La cartografía, entre los siglos XIV y XVI: instrumentación y técnicas de levantamiento'. [Undated webpage, 2007? - not traceable September 2017]

Johnson, Donald S. Phantom islands of the Atlantic (Fredericton, New Brunswick: Goose Lane Editions, 1994). [Reviewed in Terrae Incognitae 27 (1995): 84-5.]

Jomard, Edme François. Les monuments de la géographie ou recueil d'anciennes cartes européenes et orientales publiées en fac-simile de la grandeur des originaux. Paris, 1842-62. [Containing 51 full-size hand-copied facsimiles, including the following lithographed by Eugeniusz Rembielinski - both of which add or render legible names that are no longer legible: Carte Pisane. 'Carte Marine du XIIIIe [sic] siècle : (Provenant d'une ancienne famille Pisane)', IX, nos 50-51 'provisoires', 1852; and the 1367 Pizzigani chart, 'Mappemonde des Frères Pizigani de l'an MCCCLXVII', X, nos 44-49 provisoires', c.1849.]

Jonkers, A.R.T. 2003. Earth's Magnetism in the Age of Sail (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003).
    -- 2000. 'Four Centuries of Geomagnetic Secular Variation', Philosophical Transactions (2000): 957-90.

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Kahane, Henry & Renée and Lucille Bremner. 'Glossario degli antichi portolani italiani', Quaderni dell'archivo linguistico veneto, 4. Translated by Manlio Cortelazzo (Florence: Olschki, 1968). [The glossary, which seems not to have been issued in English, is of terms found in the portolani transcribed by Kretschmer (1909), pp.235-552.]

Kahlaoui, Tarek. 2017a. 'The Maghrib’s Mariners and Sea Maps: The Muqaddimah as a Primary Source', Journal of Historical Sociology (special issue on Ibn Khaldoun), 30: 1 (March 2017): 43-56.
    -- 2017b. Creating the Mediterranean: Maps and the Islamic Imagination. Handbook of Oriental Studies: The Near and Middle East (Leiden: Brill, 2017). See H-Net rewiew by
Carlos Grenier.
    -- 2008. Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, History of Art, May 2008. 'The Depiction of the Mediterranean in Islamic Cartography (11th-16th centuries): The Suras (Images) of the Mediterranean from the Bureaucrats to the Sea Captains'.

Kahyaoglu, Mehmet. 'Portolan Charts and Harbor Towns in Western Asia Minor towards the End of the Byzantine Empire', in: Paul Magdalino & Nevra Necipoglu (eds), Trade in Byzantium: Papers from the Third International Sevgi Gönül Byzantine Studies Symposium (Istanbul, 2016), pp. 267–77).

Kamal, Youssouf. 1926-51. Monumenta cartographica Africae et Aegypti, 5 vols in 16 fascicules (Cairo, 1926-51).
    -- 1937. Hallucinations scientifiques (les portulans) (Leiden: Brill, 1937).[Separate lists of North African names (just south of Seuta to Alexandria) from Ptolemy up to Dulcert [Dulceti].]

Karpov, Serghei Pavlovic. 2009. 'La presenza genovese nel Mar Nero e il contributo scientifico di Geo Pistarino', in: Laura Balletto & Edilio Riccardini (eds), Atti del convegno di studi dall'isola del Tino e dalla Lunigiana al Mediterraneo e all'Atlantico. In ricordo di Geo Pistarino (1917-2008). La Spezia, Licciana Nardi 22-24 May 2009. (La Spezia: Accademia lunigianese di scienze Giovanni Capellini, 2009), pp.170-7).
    -- 2000. La navigazione veneziana nel Mar Nero XIII-XV sec. (Ravenna: Edizioni del Girasole, 2000).
    -- for a listing of works about the Black Sea, and Genoese involvement in particular, see his Academia page.

Kauffeisen, Isabelle. 'Untersuchungen zur rechnergestützten Rekonstruktion der Portolankarte des Petrus Roselli (1449)', unveröffentlichte Diplomarbeit, Universität Essen, FB Vermessungswesen, 1987. (Census 36).

Kelley, James Edward, Jr. 2000. Analog and Digital Navigation in the Late Middle Ages (Melrose Park, PA: Sometime Publishers, 2000).
    -- 1999 (a). On Old Nautical Charts and Sailing Directions: Technical Essays (Melrose Park, PA: Sometime Publishers, 1999).
    -- 1999 (b). 'Curious vigias in portolan charts', Cartographica 36,1 (Spring 1999, i.e. April 2000): 41-9 [considering danger marks on 19 charts from the Carte Pisane to the early 16th century].
    -- 1995. 'Perspectives on the origins and uses of the portolan charts', Cartographica 32,3 (Autumn 1995, i.e. April 1996): 1-16.
    -- 1994. 'Pilot Books: A Survey of Periploi and Portolani from Ancient Times Through the End of the Fifteenth Century' [24 pages] (1994)
    -- 1979. 'Non-Mediterranean Influences That Shaped the Atlantic in the Early Portolan Charts', Imago Mundi, 31 (1979): 18-35.
    -- 1977. 'The Oldest Portolan Chart in the New World', Terrae Incognitae: Annals of the Society for the History of Discoveries, 9 (1977): 22-48.

Khotko, Samir Kh. 'Ethnonymic and toponimic names of the north-west Caucasus in historical sources: on example of portolan (nautical map) of Pietro Veskonte, 1318' (2016). [In Russian, with English summary and references - see the Academia.edu download for bibliographical details.]

Kiss, Lajos.'A portolán szó nyelvi eredete' [Linguistic origin of the term "Portolan"], Geodézia és kartográfia 40, 2 (1988): 131-2 [Hungarian with English summary].

Köberer, Wolfgang. 2011. Bibliographie zur Geschichte der Navigation in deutscher Sprache. Bibliographien aus dem Deutschen Schiffahrtsmuseum, Band II. (Bremerhaven & Wiefelstede: Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum & Oceanum Verlag, 2011). [Including about 800 references to German literature on nautical charts.]
    -- 1986. 'Vorläufiges Repertorium der Portolankarten des 13. und 14. Jahrhunderts', Der Vermessungsingenieur 37. Jahrgang, Heft 3 (June 1986): 65-8. [Listing 44 'Portolankarten' - of which 11 were not in my Census: two by Opicinus Canistris (12 & 13); eight Sanudo MSS (21-7 & 29 - on which see Kretschmer, Die italienischen Portolane des Mittelalters [i.e. on portolani, not charts]). The final potential addition is his no. 15, the map (?) of Palestine by Domenicus Pizigano [Pizzigano], dated 1350, see Supplement A: 'Works now thought to be later than 1500, irrelevant works and false locations', No.A6A.]
    -- (ed.). 1982. Das rechte Fundament der Seefahrt: Deutsche Beiträge zur Geschichte der Navigation (Hamburg, 1982).

Kogman-Appel, Katrin. 2020. Catalan Maps and Jewish Books: The Intellectual Profile of Elisha Ben Abraham Cresques (1325-1387) (Turnhout: Brepols, 2020). [About the author of the Catalan Atlas - Census 28.]
    -- 2014. '“Elisha ben Abraham, Known as Cresques”: Scribe, Illuminator, and Mapmaker in Fourteenth- Century Mallorca', Ars Judaica, 10 (2014): 27-36. [About the author of the Catalan Atlas (Census 28) and the Fahri Codex.]

Koledarov, Peter. 'West Black Sea coast ports in the late Middle Ages (14th-16th centuries) listed on nautical charts', Academie bulgare des sciences. Institut d'histoire. Études Historiques, T.V. à l'occasion du XIIIe Congrès International des Sciences Historiques. Moscou Aout 1970: pp.241-72.[Considering 31 names - fillea to san zorzi - from classical sources and the four transcriptions given by Nordenskiöld, with a folding map to show modern identifications.] [British Library, Maps Pam. Vol.3, No.60.]

Korte, M. & Catherine G. Constable. 'Continuous geomagnetic field models for the past 7 millennia: 2. CALS7K', Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 6, 1 (AGU and the Geochemical Society), 1 February 2005.

Kozlicic, Mithad, 'Adriatic sailing routes as reported in the 14th and 15th century pilgrims and travel reports', Balkan Studies, 41/1 (Thessaloniki, 2000): 5-25.

Kretschmer, Konrad. 2009 [sic]. Els portolans de l'edat mitjana. Una contribució a la història de la cartografia i la nàutica (Barcelona: Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya, 2009). [A centenary edition of the following work, translated into Catalan without updating, with an introduction by Vicenç M.Rosselló i Verger, a brief updated bibliography and 17 coloured illustrations, from the Carte Pisane to 1482.]
    -- 1909. Die italienischen Portolane des Mittelalters: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Kartographie und Nautik . Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Meereskunde und des Geographischen Instituts an der Universität Berlin, vol. 13 (Berlin, 1909; reprinted Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1962). [Harvard University has mounted a scanned version . You can search for any word and enlarge the retrieved page. Note that the results refer to a page 12 further on, and when you activate a search ‘No Search Results Found’ comes up, so check in case it is still ‘loading’.]

Kristeller, Paul Oskar. Iter Italicum: A Finding List of Uncatalogued or Incompletely Catalogued Humanistic Manuscripts of the Renaissance in Italian and Other Libraries (London; Leiden: Brill, 1977-90) [now available online via subscription].

Kriznar, Anabelle, et al (including Luis Robles Macias), ‘Pigments and Inks Applied in Juan Vespucci’s Portolan Chart (1520)’, published by MDPI in a Special Issue Traversing the History of Humanity Through the Study of the Artists' Pigments: From the Lascaux Cave Paintings to Modern Art’ (December 2022).

Krtalić, Šima. 2023. ‘A miniaturist’s gaze on the Atlantic world: the nautical chart of BnF Latin 4801’. Calafia: The Journal of the California Map Society, 2023, no. 1: 33-36. [The eyes of a detective directed at a chart of the West Africa coast, seemingly by a Florentine draftsman following a Portuguese model, around 1471.]
    -- 2023. The video of a talk given at the Bodleian Library, Oxford, 22 February 2023: 'Cartographers, craftsmen and artists: collaboration and cross-pollination in the creation of nautical charts'.
    -- 2022. ‘Anchoring the Image of the Sea: Copying Coastlines on Manuscript Nautical Charts from the Late Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period’, Imago Mundi, 74:1 (2022): 1-30. [A detailed and systematic investigation of the methods definitely or possibly used in portolan-chart copying.]
    -- 2021. 'Chart of Pietro Vesconte, 1311, Florence Archives', MEDEA website, March 2021(a brief note emphasising physical evidence) [See other 'Chart of the Week' notes, also including close observation of the construction details, Here.]
    -- see also under Gaspar (2024)

Kupčík, Ivan. 2010. Portolánový Atlas Jaume Olivese (1563) ve Vědecké Knihovně Volomouci [Nautical atlas by Jaume Olives (1563) at the Olomouc Research Library] (Olomouc: Univerzita Palackého, 2010). [Facsimile of the 6-sheet atlas, with general commentary, in English, Czech, Italian and Spanish.]
    -- 2004. 'Neznámé portolánové atlasy z 15. a počátku 16. století v benátském Rovigu' [Unknown portolan atlases from the 15th and beginning of the 16th centuries in Rovigo], in: ‘Z dejin geodézie a kartografie 12’ in: Rozpravy Národního technického muzea v Praze, 186 (Prague: Národní technické muzeum, 2004), pp.82-94. (Discussing and illustrating the three unsigned and undated atlases in Rovigo, Bib. Com. e Concord.: Census 106 [Silv.182], pl. 1-8; 107 [Silv. 68], pl. 9-13; & 108 [Conc. 486], pl. 14-16). [Note that the illustrations are very poor and that nos 6 & 13 are in mirror-image.]
    -- 2003. 'Das Janusgesicht der Portolankarten : die ungelösten Fragen zur Ikonographie der Portolankarten', in Dagmar Unverhau (ed.): Geschichtsdeutung auf alten Karten : Archäologie und Geschichte. 46. Wolfenbütteler Symposium, vom 26. bis 29. Oktober 1999. (Wiesbaden, 2003) pp.65-92.
    -- 2000. Munich Portolan Charts. "Kunstmann I-XIII" and ten further portolan charts / Münchner Portolankarten "Kunstmann I-XIII" und zehn weitere Portolankarten (Munich; Berlin: Deutscher Kunstverlage, 2000). (Bilingual text, English/German, discussing and illustrating the 1426 Beccari, Census 37 [Addendum 1, pp.95-101]; anon chart 'before 1500', Census E.3(A) [Addendum 3, pp.106-9]; Reinel 'ca.1500', Census A9 [Addendum 4, pp.110-14]; anon atlas, c.1509, Census A10 [Addendum 6, pp.122-3].
    -- 1992. 'Karten von der schönen Neuen Welt: aus dem Nachlaß alter Seekarten in Münchner Sammlungen (Beitrag zum Gedenkjahr 1992)', Kultur & Technik 16 (Munich, 1992) no.2, pp. 10-19.

Kurt, Andrew. 'The search for Prester John, a projected crusade and the eroding prestige of Ethiopian kings, c.1200 – c.1540', Journal of Medieval History (2013): 2-24.

Kustova, Galina. 'The Danube mouths in medieval portolans', Analele Universitatii 'Dunarea de Jos' Galati 5 (2006): 83-91.

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Lacroix, Jean Pierre & Robert Bywater. Map projections used in selected portolan style maps including the Piri Reis map of 1513. [An undated 76-slide presentation for the 'Ancient Cartography' site. One of its surprising conclusions is: "5. The source maps {for the portolan charts} must have depicted (most of) Africa, southern South America and probably parts of the Antarctic Peninsula".]

Lago, Luciano. 2009. 'Il contributo del documento cartografico nella ricerca toponomastica', in: Luciano Lago, Orietta Selva & Dragan Umek (eds), La toponomastica in Istria, Fiume e Dalmazia. Vol. II, Parte 1: Aspetti cartografici e comparazione geostorica (Florence: Istituto Geografico Militare, 2009) pp. 33-50.
    -- 1998. Imago Adriae - La Patria del Friuli, L'Istria e La Dalmazia nella cartografia antica (Trieste: Edizioni La Mongolfiera, 1998).
    -- 1992. Imago mundi et Italiae. La versione del mondo e la scoperta dell'Italia nella cartografia antica (secoli X-XVI) (Trieste: Edizioni La Mongolfiera, 1992), 2 volumes.

Laguarda Trías, Rolando Agustin. Introducción a la cartología portulana. Estudio de las cartas denavegar medievales (Montevideo, 1996).

Lane, Frederick C. 1996. I mercanti di Venezia (Turin: Einaudi, 1996).
    -- 1983. Le navi di Venezia tra i secoli XIII e XVI (Turin: Einaudi, 1983).

Lanman, Jonathan. On the origin of portolan charts. Hermon Dunlap Smith Center Occasional Publications 2 (Chicago: Newberry Library, 1987). ['Proposes source of data were portolani, they were drawn on a square grid, and that skewing was due to contemporary magnetic declination' .]

La Roncière, Monique de, & Michel Mollat du Jourdin. Les Portulans: Cartes marines du XIIIe au XVIIe siècle (Fribourg: Office du Livre, 1984). [With the extended chart captions also written by Marie-Madeleine Azard, Isabelle Raynaud-Nguyen and Marie-Antoinette Vannereau. English edition, trans. L. le R. Dethan, Sea charts of the early explorers: 13th to 17th century (London: Thames & Hudson, 1984).]

Le Carrer, Olivier. Océans de papier: histoire des cartes maritimes des périples antiques au GPS (Grenoble: Glénat, 2006).

Ledger, Jeremy Francis. 'Mapping Mediterranean Geographies: Geographic and Cartographic Encounters between the Islamic World and Europe, c. 1100-1600'. Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, 2016. [See particularly Chapter 4: Geographies of Conquest: A Maghribi Chart of the Western Mediterranean, pp.176-237, about the Maghreb Chart (Census 89).]

Leduc, F.-X., M. Pelletier & S. Toulouse. 'Le peintre et le cartographe: cartes-portulans et insulaires, XIVe-XVIIe siècle' in, Monique Pelletier (ed.) Couleurs de la terre: des mappemondes médiévales aux images satellitales (Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France; Seuil, 1998) pp.41-51.

Leitão, Henrique. See under Gaspar, Joaquim Alves.

Leitner, Wilhelm. 'Der Portulan des Tâbib Ibrâhim el-Mursi vom Jahr 1461. Die zweite arabische 'Seekarte' als spätmittelalterliches Dokument islamischer Kulturgeographie' in: Festschrift zur 100-Jahrfeier des Österreichischen Sankt Georgskolleg in Istanbul (Istanbul: Sankt Georgskolleg, 1982) pp.140-67. (Census 132).

Lepore, Fortunato & Marco Piccardi. 'La toponomastica toscana di un atlante nautico ottomano. Il Kitab-i Bahriye di Piri Reis (XVI-XVIII secolo)', in: Silvia Siniscalchi (ed.) STUDI del LA.CAR.TOPON.ST. (Numero speciale). Scritti dedicatia Vincenzo Aversano. Gutenberg Edizioni. (Università degli Studi di Salerno, 2014). [Including lists comparing the Piri Reis toponymy for the coast between the gulf of Spezia and Civitavecchia with that of western charts (pp.287-91.]

Lepore, Fortunato, Marco Piccardi & Enzo Pranzini. 2017. 'Latitudine senza latitudine. La carta nautica di Francesco Beccari (1403). Misurazioni astronomiche e carte per navigare nell’Europa tardo- medievale', Studi Costieri 27 (2017): 33-107.
    -- 2012.
'The autumn of mediaeval portolan charts. Cartometric issues', e-Perimetron 7:1 (2012): 16-27. [Focusing particularly on the 1403 Beccari chart and its latitude scale, on which see the 2011 entry.]
    -- 2011. Costa e arcipelago toscano nel Kitab i Bahriye di Piri Reis. Un confronto cartografico (secoli XIII-XVII). (Pisa: Felici Editore, 2011). [Chapter 8 is entitled 'Il Kitab-i Bahriye e le carte portolano' (pp. 117-43) with a section on the 1403 Beccari chart, which argues that the latitude scale is original (pp.129-35). With 52 scans of charts (some additional to those in the book) some in high resolution, on a separate CD-ROM, that can be zoomed and rotated (reflecting the book's focus, all the sample sheets from atlases concentrate on Italy and the central Mediterranean).]
    see also under Piccardi

Licini, Patrizia [de Romagnoli]. 2020. 'Count Freducci's Nautical Charts, Papal Cartography, and Transmission: A Reply to Article by Chet Van Duzer (2017)', HUMANITIES - Anno IX, Numero 17 (Giugno 2020), pp.29-144.
    -- 2009. ‘Andrea Doria da Genova, i Freducci da Fermo e una carta nautica inedita firmata Freducci’, in: Ciro Robotti (ed.), Città, castelli, paesaggi euromediterranei. Storie rappresentazioni progetti. Atti del Sesto Colloquio Internazionale di Studi, Capua, Castello di Carlo V, 1-2 dicembre 2006 (Lecce: Edizioni del Grifo, 2009), pp. 306-31. [This and all the following discuss the Jesi chart, which is considered by the author to have been drawn by an earlier member of the Freducci family, c.1464, in connection with the unrealised crusade of Enea Silvio Piccolomini, Pope Pius II.]
    -- 2008. 'European and Ottoman landmarks from a portolan chart at the time of Enea Silvio Piccolomini', in: Ingrid Baumgärtner & Hartmut Kugler (eds) Europa im Weltbild des Mittelalters: kartographische Konzepte. Orbis mediaevalis : Vorstellungswelten des Mittelalters ; Bd. 10). (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2008) pp. 191-218. [Proceedings of the conference held in Nuremberg, Germany, June 15-17, 2006.]
    -- 2007(a). ‘Da Valladolid a Fermo passando per la Florida. I Freducci, cartografi anconetani’, in Charta 93 - ottobre 2007. Geographica Vol. 3, ‘argomenti: Storia’, pp. 24-30. [Reproducing five of the six sheets from the 1539 Freducci atlas in Bologna.]
    -- 2007(b). 'La cartografia nautica dei Freducci come testo, contesto ed ipertesto della Signoria di Fermo', in: Simonetta Conti (ed.) Amate sponde. Le rappresentazioni dei paesaggi costieri mediterranei. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studi del Centro di Studi Storico-Geografici, Gaeta, 11-13 dicembre 2003 (Formia: Graficart, 2007), pp. 245-90.
    -- 2006. 'La contribucíon de la cartografía náutica de la Marca de Ancona en otro tempo llamada Piceno, en época de la impresa de Cristóbal Colón y Juan Ponce de León', in Cartografía e Historia Natural del Nuevo Mundo. Libros, grabados y manuscritos en Italia y España entre los siglos XV y XVIII (Valladolid, Diputación de Valladolid, 2006). V Centenario de la muerte de Cristóbal Colón, 1506-2006 – Valladolid, Sala de Esposiciones “Palacio de Pimentel 12 de abril – 28 de mayo de 2006”
    -- 2005. 'Il contributo della cartografia nautica della "Marca di Ancona un tempo detta Piceno" all’età dell’impresa di Cristoforo Colombo e Juan ponce de León', in Cartografia e Storia Naturale del Nuovo Mondo. Manoscritti, Libri ed Incisioni tra Italia e Spagna nei secoli XV e XVIII (Fermo: Grafiche Fioroni, 2005), pp. 85-174. [See pp.117-19 and notes 120-4 on early members of the Freducci family.]
    -- 1999. 'The Ottoman conquest of Armenia from a portolan Italian chart of Iesi'. Trails to the East. Essays in memory of Paolo Cuneo. Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1-2/1997-98-99 [imprint 2000]: 56-65.
    -- 1991. ‘L’Europa Orientale in una strana carta nautica di Jesi’, Europa Orientalis, 10 (1991): 27-58.

Lindgren, Uta. 2008. 'The mathematical and astronomical foundations of medieval sea charts (portulans)', in: Joseph W. Dauben, et al. (eds), Mathematics celestial and terrestrial. Festschrift für Menso Folkerts zum 65. Geburtstag. Acta Historica Leopoldina, 54. (Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, 2008), pp.187-204.
    -- 1993(a). Battista Agnese. Portulan-Atlas. München, Universitätsbibliothek, Cim.18. Farbmikrofiche-Edition. Untersuchungen zu Problemen der mittelalterlichen Seekartographie und Beschreibung der Portulankarten (Munich: Helga Lengenfelder, 1993).
    -- 1993(b). 'Nordeuropa in der Kartographie der Portulane', in: Dagmar Unverhau & Kurt Schietzel, Das Danewerk in der Kartographiegeschichte Nordeuropas (Neumünster: Wachholtz, 1993), pp. 95-106.
    -- 1993(c). 'Les portulans et l'Europe du Nord', Documenta et scripta (1993): 189-204.
    -- 1992. 'Mittelalterliche Seekarten', Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau 45 (1992), II, 352-3.

Livieratos, Evangelos. 2010. Cyprus on historical maps: placement, shape and orientation from a digital point of view. Cyprus Cartography Lectures No.8. (Nicosia: Bank of Cyprus Cultural Foundation, 2010).[Among the ten maps compared is the 1470 Benincasa.]
    -- 2006. 'The use of animation in visualizing deformations of a portolan-type map' (illustrated article, in: e-Perimetron, 1:1 (Winter 2006), pp.71-6.

Livieratos, Evangelos & Chryssoula Boutoura. ’Carte Pisane and its coastline shape’, e-Perimetron, 13:3 (2018): 161-81.

Llompart i Moragues, Gabriel. [For a growing collection of English translations by Juan Ceva of his articles on the Jewish chartmakers of Majorca, especially Cresques (some co-authored with Jaume Riera i Sans), from 1975 onwards, see the Cresques Project. The most recent articles are listed below]
    -- 2011. 'Majorcan Jews and Medieval Cartography, English translation by Juna Ceva of: 'Los Judíos Mallorquines y la Cartografa Medieval', Mallorca Judaica, Cuadernos de Historia, No. 5 (Palma: Asociación Amigos del Castillo de San Carlo, "Aula General Weyler", 2011): 113-31.
    -- 2011. 'Cameos of Medieval Jewish Life from Majorcan Documents (XIII - XV c.)', English translation by Juna Ceva of: 'Retazos de Vida Medieval Judía Documentos Mallorquines (s. XIII - XV)', Memòries de l'Acadèmia Mallorquina d'Estudis Genealògics, Heràldics i Històrics 21 (2011) pp. 21-4. [Adding further information on Cresques Abraham and his forebears.]
    -- 2005(a). 'Brújalas y cartas náuticas de naves y navegantes puerto de Mallorca, siglos XIV-XVI', Estudis Històrics i Documents dels Arxius de Protocols 23 (2005): 7-73.
    -- 2005(b). (With Ramon J. Pujades i Bataller, and Julio Sams Moya). El món i els dies: l'Atles Català [The World and the Days: the Catalan Atlas]. (Barcelona: Enciclopedia Catalana, 2005) [Also a de luxe edition by Edicions 62, and a reduced version by Enciclopedia Catalana, both 2008] . Colour facsimile on 6 panels with texts. Includes four chapters by Ramon J. Pujades i Bataller: 'La fascinació per l'Atlas català' (The fascination of the Catalan Atlas), 'Un mapamundi de transició de la segona meitat del segle XIV' (A transitional mappamundi of the second half of the 14th century), pp.15-25; 'La cartografia portolana a la Corona d'Aragó: l'escola mallorquina' (The portolan cartography of the Crown of Aragon: the Mallorcan school), pp.26-31; and 'La història de l'Atles català i l'enigma de l'autor' (The history of the Catalan Atlas and the enigma of its author) pp.32-43 [but see Pujades, 2009 p.335, note 166, about some errors he says were introduced into the toponymic transcriptions in that work.] Also Julio Sams Moya [or Julio Samsó] 'Una concepció de l'Univers', pp.44-56. [Besides the Catalan Atlas itself (Census 28) Pujades i Bataller also discusses the 1339 Dulcert [Dulceti] chart (Census 13) and others thought to derive from the Cresques workshop, based on toponyms and legends. The three authors conclude that the Catalan Atlas was presented by Juan I of Aragon to Charles VI of France in 1381 - see review by Sandra Sáenz-López Pérez in Imago Mundi 59:2 (2007): 236-7.]
    -- 2000. 'La identitat de Jaume Ferrer el navegant (1346)', Memòries de l'Acadèmia Mallorquina d'Estudis Genealògics, 10 (2000): 7-20. [English translation by Juan Ceva, 2011, as 'The Identity of Jaume Ferrer, The Seafarer (1346)'.]
    -- 1999-2000. 'El testamento del cartógrafo Cresques Abraham y otros documentos familiares', Estudis Baleàrics 64/65 (1999-2000): 99-115.[English translation by Juan Ceva, 2010, as 'The will of the cartographer Cresques Abraham and other family documents' .]
    -- 1999. 'Pintors, picapedrers i cartógrafs a la Mallorca medieval', L'artista-artesà medieval a la Corona d'Aragó (Lleida, 14. 15 i 16 de gener de 1998) (Lleida: IEI-Universitat de Lleida, 1999) pp 169-81.
    -- 1997. 'Registro de los cartógrafos medievales activos en el puerto de Mallorca', Anuario de Estudios Medievales 27, 2 (1997): 1117-48. [English translation by Juan Ceva, 2011, as 'Register of Medieval Cartographers Active in the Port of Majorca'.]
    -- 1988. 'Identificación del "Maestro de las Pedrelas" y encuadre de otros más', Estudis Baleàrics 29-30 (1988): 45-52 (biographical information on Vallseca and the chart of 1439, Census 128).
    -- 1984 [with Jaume Riera i Sans]. 'Jafudà Cresques i Samuel Corcós: Més documents sobre els jueus pintors de cartes de navegar (Mallorca, segle XIV), Bolletí de la Societat Archeologica Luliana 40 (1984): 341-50 [N.B. Web Archive version is very slow-loading.] [English translation by Juan Ceva, 2010, as 'Jafudà Cresques and Samuel Corcós: More Documents about the Jewish Painters of Nautical Charts (Majorca, XIV c.).]
    -- 1977-80. La pintura medieval mallorquina: su entorno cultural y su iconografia, 4 vols (Palma de Mallorca: Luis Ripoll, 1977-80).
    -- 1973-5. 'La cartografia mallorquina del siglo XV: nuevos hitos y rutas', Bolletí de la Societat Arqueològica Lul.liana 34 (1973-5): 436-65. [N.B. Web Archive version is very slow-loading.]
    -- see also under Crespi, and Riera

Lock, Peter (translater). 'Introduction', in Marino Sanudo Torsello: The Book of the Secrets of the Faithful of the Cross (Farnham: Ashgate, 2011). Lodigiani, Paolo. Guida al Mare Adriatico: coste occidentali e orientali da S. Maria di Leuca al confine greco (Bologna: Zanichelli, 2005).

Long, Pamela O., et al. (eds), The Book of Michael of Rhodes. 3 vols (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2009)

Longhena, Mario. 'La carta dei Pizigano del 1367 (posseduta dalla Biblioteca Palatina di Parma)', Archivio Storico per le province parmensi, 4th series, 5 (1953): 25-130. [Comparative name lists, for Nice-Trieste and the Baltic, involving the 1367 Pizigano [Pizzigano], 1435 Beccari, 1482 Benincasa and 1494 Giorgio charts (Census 99, 100, 61 & 102), with modern equivalents.]

Loomer, Scott A. 1987. 'A cartometric analysis of portolan charts: a search for methodology' (PhD thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1987). [Analysing 26 charts between 1339 and 1508.]
    -- 1986. 'Mathematical analysis of medieval sea charts', in: Technical Papers [of the] 1986 ACSM-ASPRS Annual Convention, Washington DC, March 16-21 (Falls Church, VA: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping & American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 1986). Vol. 1: Cartography and education, pp.123-32 [on the late-14th-century Catalan chart in the Marciana, IV 1912 (Census 115)].

López, Olga. 'Col-lecció de Museu Marítim de Barcelona', Cartografia Mallorquina (Diputació de Barcelona, 1995), pp.89-111 (on the 1439 Vallseca chart (Census 128).

Lugli, Emanuele, 'Linking the Mediterranean: The Construction of Trading Networks in 14th and 15th-century Italy', in Daniel Savoy (ed), The Globalization of Renaissance Art: A Critical Review (Brill, 2018), pp.158-85. [Focusing on 'commonplace mercantile books, portolans, and maps'.]

Luzzana Caraci, I. 'A proposito della cosiddetta carta di Colombo', in: F. Bencardino, Oriente Occidente. Scritti in memoria di Vittorina Langella (Naples: Gall, 1993), pp. 121-47. [Census 10?]

Top of page

Maccagni, Carlo. 'Dal Mediterraneo all'Atlantico: scienze nautiche e strumenti', L'uomo e il mare nella civiltà occidentale: da Ulisse a Cristoforo Colombo. Atti del convegno (Genova 1-4 giugno 1992). "Atti della Società Ligure di Storia Patria", 32 (1992): 381-420.

McIntosh, Gregory C. 2023. 'After the compass and before the chart: Some considerations on the origin of the portolan chart'. Calafia: The Journal of the California Map Society, 2023, no. 1: 24-26. ['By conveniently combining onto a single piece of parchment his [the navigator's] courses and triangles ... the proto-portolan chart was born ... The portolan chart was the product of a long, evolving process of improvement and refinement of the the tools and techniques of the medieval mariner ...'.]
    -- 2015. The Vesconte Maggiolo World Map of 1504 in Fano, Italy. Second Edition (Plus Ultra Publishing Company, 2015). [Includes listings of early 16th-century names for western Africa, pp.53- .] [See also an abridgement: Manuscript Maps as Manuscript Texts, also 2015 (focusing on stemmatics and the identification of transcription variations).]

McIntosh, Gregory C. & Gonçalo A. S. Dias. 'A New, Further Method of Cartometric Analysis with Two Case Studies', PowerPoint presentation at the 2nd International Workshop on the Origin and Evolution of Portolan charts, Lisbon, 9 June 2018.

McIntosh, Gregory C. & Joaquim Alves Gaspar. 'Kunstmann III: the oldest known nautical chart incorporating latitudes', Imago Mundi, 73: 2 (2021): 162-78.

Malamut, Élisabeth & Mohamed Ouerfelli. Villes méditerranéennes au Moyen Âge (Aix-en-Provence: Presses Universitaires de Provence, 2014).

Malpica Cuello, Antonio & Adela Fábregas García, 'La vida marítima y el poblamiento medieval de la costa del Mediterráneo andaluz', in Antonio Malpica Cuello (ed.), Navegación marítima del Mediterráneo al Atlántico (Granada, 2001), pp. 97-148.

Marelić, Tome. 2023. 'Traces of the Common Origin of Carte Pisane, Cortona Chart, and Pietro Vesconte’s Charts', Journal of Cartography and Geographic Information (December 2023).
    -- 2023. 'Doubly Perceived Shape of the Adriatic Sea Basin on Early Modern Geographical Maps and Nautical Charts'. Cartography and Geoinformation, 22 (2), 20-41 (2023).
    -- 2023. 'Geometric Stalemate and De-Evolution of Adriatic Sea Representations on Early Modern Age Nautical Charts'. The Cartographic Journal 60:3 (2023): 216-29. [Considering nautical charts made between 1538 and 1771.]
    -- 2023. 'Certain arguments against the hypothesis that portolan charts were genuine late-medieval cartographic products'. International Journal of Cartography (2023).
    -- 2023. ’Certain arguments against the hypothesis portolan charts were genuine late-medieval cartographic products’ . A YouTube video of a talk to the IVth International Workshop: ‘On the Origin and Evolution of the Nautical Chart’, Lisbon, 25 May 2023 (Session 1: 1.5-1.49 mins).
    -- 2022. 'Conformal Cylindrical Properties of Adriatic Sea Basin Renderings on Portolan Charts', Cartographic Journal, 59:2 (2022): 83-101. ['Adriatic Sea basin renderings on portolan charts were probably the result of a deliberately applied map projection which was geometrically most similar to the modern conformal cylindrical (Mercator) projection'.]
    -- 2022. 'The origin of distance and bearing navigational data contained in portolani for the Adriatic Sea basin', International Journal of Cartography. [The distances and wind directions in the portolani 'were, most likely, extracted directly from portolan charts ... the length of the portolan mile ... might be about 1.29 kilometers'.]
    -- 2020. ‘Toĉnost prikaza Jadranskog mora na portulanskim kartama’ [The Accuracy of Adriatic Sea Renderings on Portolan Charts], PhD thesis, University of Zadar, December 2020. In Croatian, with English abstract Here.
    -- 2019. 'Evidence of Portolan Chart Loxodromic Geometry (the Example of the Adriatic Sea Basin)', 15th international conference Geoinformation and Cartography.

Marino, Nancy F. (edited & translated). El Libro Del Conoscimiento De Todos Los Reinos/the Book of Knowledge of All Kingdoms: The Book of Knowledge of All Kingdoms. Medieval & Renaissance texts & studies vol. 198 (Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 1999).

Martin, Jean-Marie. Zones côtières littorales dans le monde méditerranéen au Moyen Âge (Rome, Ecole Française de Rome, Casa de Velázquez, 2001).

Martín-Gil, Francisco J., Pablo Martín-Ramos & Jesús Martín-Gil. 'A cryptogram in the compass roses of the Majorcan portolan charts from the Messina-Naples mapmakers school', Almogaren XXXVI (Vienna, 2005): 285-95. (TEMPLOS or LOSTEMPS found in some compass roses from the Catalan Atlas onwards.)

Martín-Merás Verdejo, Luisa. 2015. 'La representación de ciudades marítimas y portuarias en mapas españoles del siglo XVI'. In: De espacios, mares y tiempos. Homenaje a José Luis Casado Soto (Santander: Parlamento de Cantabria, 2015), pp. 121-42.
    -- 2012. 'Las cartas portulanas. Origen y desarrollo', in: María Domingo & Iolanda Muña (eds), Investigación, conservación y restauración de materiales y objetos cartográficos. Actas del curso celebrado en el Instituto del Patrimonio Cultural de España en noviembre de 2010 (Madrid: Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte, 2012) pp. 27-41. [Concentrating on Majorcan charts. Also Here]
    -- 1994. 'Cartas portulanas. Características generales', in Introducción y estudio del facsímil del Atlas de Joan Martines 1570 (Valencia: Javier Boronat, 1994).

Martínez Hernández, Marcos. Las Islas Canarias de la Antigüedad al Renacimiento: nuevos aspectos (Santa Cruz de Tenerife: Centro de la Cultura Popular Canaria, 1996).

Martínez-Hidalgo, José María. El Museo Marítímo de la Diputación de Barcelona ([Spain]: Silex, 1985). [See p.90 for comments on the purchase of the 1439 Vallseca chart (Census 128).]

Mascaró Passarius, Josep La toponomía i cartografia antigues de les Illes Balears: cartes de navegar i texts des del segle VI abans de Crist fins a l'any 1599 (Palma de Mallorca: Lleonard Muntaner Editor, 2000).

Masiero, Franco. 'La raxon de marteloio', Studi veneziani 8 (1984): 393-412.

Massing, Jean Michel. 'Observations and Beliefs: The World of the Catalan Atlas', in: Jay A. Levenson (ed.), Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration (Washington, D.C., National Gallery of Art; New Haven, Yale University Press, 1991), pp. 27-33.

Mazzeo, Paolo. 'Le carte nautiche dello Stretto di Messina: tradizione e innovazione', Bollettino AIC 129-131 (2007): 303-16.

Medas, Stefano. 2009/10. 'Il piu antico testo portolanico attualmente noto: lo Stadiasmo o Periplo del Mare Grande', Mayurqa 33 (2009-10): 333-64. [Includes references to medieval portolani and ancient navigation practices; English abstract.] [Also HERE.]
    -- 2008. Lo Stadiasmo o Periplo del Mare Grande e la navigazione antica. Commento nautico al più antico testo portolanico attualmente noto (Madrid: Universidad Complutense, 2008).
    -- 2004. De rebus nauticis. L’arte della navigazione nel mondo antico (Rome: "L'Erma" di Bretschneider, 2004). [233 pages.]

Meliá, Juan Tous. 2014. Islas Canarias a través de la cartografía. Una selección de mapas emblemáticos entre 1507 y 1898 (Islas Canarias, 2014). [With discussion of the earlier charts at the beginning.]
    -- 1995. El Plan de las Afortunadas Islas del Reyno de Canarias y la Isla de San Borondón (Museo Militar Regional de Canarias [et al.], 1996). [Based on a paper delivered at a conference in Las Palmas on 23 November 1995, 'Las Palmas de Gran Canaria a través de la cartografía'; it includes 18 comparative outlines from portolan charts, 1339-c.1592.]

Melis, F. 'Elenco descrittivo dei porti dell'Europa in un manoscritto fiorentino della fine del Trecento', in: I trasporti e le comunicazioni nel Medioevo. (Florence: Le Monnier, 1984) pp. 69-76.

Menjot, Denis. 'Ports et trafics maritimes sur la côte murcienne au Moyen Âge (milieu XIIIe- début XVIe siècle)', in: Ghislaine Fabre, et al. (eds). Les ports et la navigation en Méditerranée au Moyen-Âge (Editions Le Manuscrit, 2009), pp.201-11.

Mesenburg, Peter. 2021. 'Portolankarten – Aufnahme und Abbildung', KN - Journal of Cartography and Geographic Information (2021). ['Here, for the first time, a method is presented that makes it possible to construct maps of the Mediterranean with simple aids (compasses and ruler) in such a way that they correspond to the accuracy and other properties of the portolan charts ... distances are used that have been determined with a high degree of probability since ancient times. Triangles are constructed from these lines and transferred directly to the plane without any reduction in the image'.]
    -- 2014. 'Zur Genauigkeit mittelalterlicher Portolane', in: Michael Bischoff(ed.), Kartographie der Frühen Neuzeit: Weltbilder und Wirkungen; Ergebnisse des in Kooperation mit der Kartenabteilung der Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin durchgeführten internationalen Symposiums am Weserrenaissance-Museum Schloss Brake (4.-6. April 2014) (Marburg, 2014) pp.37-43.
    -- 2006. 'Zur Genauigkeit der Portolane im Seeatlas des Vesconte Maggiolo (1512)', in: L. Zentai, J. Györffy & Z. Török (eds) Karten - Wissenschaft, Festschrift zum 65. Geburtstag zu Ehren von Prof. Istvan Klinghammer. Studia Cartologica 13 (Budapest: Elte, 2006) pp.283-92.
    -- 2005. 'Untersuchungen zur Geometrie und zur Genese alter Karten' (selected early portolan charts, world and regional maps are briefly described and (mostly) illustrated and corrected for positional accuracy; includes the author's bibliography (Veröffentlichungen)).
    -- 1999. 'About the precision of Portolan Charts - Gratiosus Beninchasa, Venedig 1468'. 18th International Conference on the History of Cartography in the National Hellenic Research Foundation (NHRF), 10.07.-16.07.1999 (Athens: 1999) pp.1-9.
    -- 1994. 'Portolankarten: die "Vermessene" Welt des Mittelalters', in: Horst Wenzel (et al., eds) Gutenberg und die Neue Welt (Munich, 1994), pp. 59-75.
    -- 1990(a). 'Untersuchungen zur geometrischen Struktur und zur Genese der Portolankarte des Petrus Roselli aus dem Jahre 1449', in: Wolfgang Scharfe, et al. (eds), 4. Kartographiehistorisches Colloquium, Karlsruhe,17-19, März 1988: Vorträge und Berichte (Berlin: Reimer, 1990): 31-8 [on Census 36].
    -- 1990(b). 'Untersuchungen zur kartometrischen Auswertung mittelalterlicher Portolane', Kartographische Nachrichten, 40 Jg.1 (February 1990): 9-18 [based on the 1449 Roselli chart (Census 36)].
    -- 1989. Kartographie im Mittelalter: eine analytische Betrachtung zum Informationsgehalt der Portulankarte des Petrus Roselli aus dem Jahre 1449. Karlsruher Geowissenschaftliche Schriften, Band 1 (1989). (Census 36 with a colour reproduction).
    -- 1988(a). 'Numerische und graphische Analysen zur geometrischen Struktur von Portolankarten', Internationales Jahrhbuch für Kartographie 28 (Bonn-Bad Godesberg, 1988): 73-81.
    -- 1988(b). 'Portolankarten belegen die hohe Kunst der Ingenieure im Mittelalter', Essener Universitätsberichte, 2 (1988): 16-21.
    -- 1987. 'Rechnergestützte Analyse zum kartographischen und geodätischen Informationsgehalt von Portolankarten', in: Wolfgang Scharfe, et al. (eds), Kartographiehistorisches Kolloquium Wien '86: Vorträge und Berichte (Berlin: Reimer, 1987): 57-68 [e.g. considering the 1497 Jehuda ben Zara chart (Census 154)].

Meyer, Michaela. 'Kartometrische Untersuchungen zur Genauigkeit von Portolankarten. Abraham Cresques (Mallorca 1375) / Vesconte Maggiolo (Parma 1512)', unveröffentlichte Diplomarbeit, Universität Essen, FB Vermessungswesen, 2000. (Census 28).

Michéa, Hubert. Recherches sur l'histoire maritime. Textes publiés par Hubert Michea. [An online listing of the author's publications and conference papers, many on medieval navigation and the marteloio, and several available online, e.g. Procédés de navigation du Moyen-âge, aux grandes découvertes - et l'évolution des mentalités;   A propos de "La Sfera" de Dati;  De l'utilisation de martelloios ou roses des vents au Moyen Age.]

Milanesi, Marica. 1996. 'A Forgotten Ptolemy: Harley Codex 3686 in the British Library, Imago Mundi 48 (1996): 43-64. [Describing the links between the Ptolemy MS and Bianco's atlas, 1436. 'The codex constitutes one of the earliest examples of the synthesis of portolan chart, Ptolemaic map and medieval mappamundi...'.]. (Census 112).
    -- 1993. 'La cartografia italiana nel Medio Evo e nel Rinascimento', La cartografia italiana. Cicle de conferències sobre història de la cartografia. 3r curs (12-21 de febrer de 1992) (Barcelona: Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya, 1993) pp.15-78.

Milano, Ernesto. Mapamundi catalán Estense / Mapamundi català Estense. Comentario / Comentari [transcripts by Annalisa Batini] (Barcelona: Moleiro, 1996). [Including toponymic listing.]

Milić, Danica (ed.) Monumenta cartographica Jugoslaviae. II Srednjovekovne karte [Medieval maps] , selected and produced by Gavro A. Ŝkrivanić (Belgrade: Narodna Knjiga, 1979) [includes comparative toponyms from cauo distria to dulcigno (pp.60-1) from nine portolan charts: 1318 (Vesconte) to 1480 (Benincasa).]

Mille, Jacques. 2023. 'The Avignon Chart (c.1300–c.1310): An Early Attempt to Represent the Northern Regions of Europe on a Nautical Chart,’ Imago Mundi 75, no. 2 (2023). [In press.]
    -- 2023. ’Last news about the Avignon Chart’. A YouTube video of a talk to the IVth International Workshop: ‘On the Origin and Evolution of the Nautical Chart’, Lisbon, 25 May 2023 (Session 1, 27-64 mins).
    -- 2021. La carte d'Avignon: De la Méditerranée à la Baltique 1190-1490 (Espelette: Pyrénées-Atlantiques, 2021).
    -- 2021. De la Méditerranée à la mer Baltique. 1190-1490. Recherches 2015-2020 sur les cartes marines et les portulans [Privately published, 2021]. [A 361-page, richly illustrated summation of his research into the Avignon chart, with further conclusions about the chart's North Sea coverage.]
    -- 2018. The Avignon chart. Something new in the little family of the first portolan charts (2018). [72-page, illustrated booklet, examining in detail the recently discovered Avignon chart and proposing a reading of the northern regions (Britain, the North Sea & Baltic) which are drawn very differently than on the other early charts. Self-published at the time of the 2nd Lisbon Workshop (7-8 June 2018), in 60 copies; it can be purchased from the author (jacques.mille2 (at) @wanadoo.fr)].
    -- 2016. The French Mediterranean coasts on portolan charts (2016). [60-page, illustrated booklet, examining in detail the coastal configuration and toponymy, particularly among the earliest charts, where it is suggested that the Cortona chart might be older than the Carte Pisane. Self-published at the time of the Lisbon Workshop (6-7 June 2016), in 60 copies; it can be purchased from the author (jacques.mille2 (at) wanadoo.fr)].

Mille, Jacques & Paul Fermon. 'Une carte portulan récemment découverte. Peut-être une des plus anciennes conservées? La carte d’Avignon. L’histoire d’une découverte', the Brussels Map Circle website, '1 May 2017' {but released on the web in September 2017); a shorter version in English can be found in the the BIMCC's newletter, Maps in History 59 (September 2017), pp. 19-25. [About an unsigned and undated, but very early, chart fragment, rediscovered by Paul Fermon in 2015, in the Archives départementales de Vaucluse (Avignon), Port 01, 3E 54, 888bis.]

Minow, Helmut. 2004(a). 'Portolankarten (I): Geschichte der mittelalterlichen Seekarten', Geomatik Schweiz: Geoinformation und Landmanagement, 6 (2004): 372-77.
    -- 2004(b). 'Portolankarten (II): Analyse der mittelalterlichen Seekarten', Geomatik Schweiz: Geoinformation und Landmanagement, 7 (2004): 433-8.
    -- 1998. 'Rätsel der mittelalterlichen Seekarten', Deutsches Schiffahrtsarchiv, 21 (1998): 411-28.
    -- 1985. 'Sind die frühen Portolankarten das Ergebnis antiker grossräumiger Vermessungen', in: Wolfgang Scharfe & Eckhard Jäger (eds) Kartographiehistorisches Colloquium Lüneburg '84: Vorträge (Berlin: Reimer, 1985): 161-72.

Monmonier, Mark. Rhumb lines and map wars: a social history of the Mercator Projection (University of Chicago Press, 2004). [Chapter 2 'Early Sailing Charts' pp.17-29.]

Monsaingeon, Laurent. 'Quelques observations (de Beotien) sur la carte muette & enigmatique de Baldasaro da Maïolo Visconte [Gênes], 1589' (Nice, October 2017). [A detailed, well-illustrated study on 83 pages. See towards the end of 'Ma démarche' for the conclusion that four unlettered sheets were used to transfer details to a new chart via a pantograph (despite that device not being recorded before 1603), though on that see also 'Copying'.]

Montaner i Garcia, Carme - see under Rosselló i Verger (1995)

Montaner, Pedro de. 'El desaparecido Gabinete de Antigüeadades de los Capuchinos de Mallorca y el origen de la Collección Vivot', Mayurka. Miscelánea de estudios humanísticos (Palma de Mallorca, 1976) 15: 199-208. Revista del Departament de Ciències Històriques i Teoria de les Arts. (Census E.14(A)).

Moore, Rosamie. Venetian Fortresses in Greece. [Undated webpage, including an interactive map.]

Morcken, Roald. 'Old Norse nautical distance tables in the Mediterranean Sea', Mariners Mirror 75 (1989): 53-77.

Moreno Martín, José María. 'Cartografía para navegantes en el Mediterráneo medieval: las cartas portulanas', in: I Jornada de Cartografía en la Biblioteca Nacional de España Difundiendo la cartografía antigua. Madrid, 29 de octubre de 2015 (Biblioteca Nacional de España, [2015]) pp.6-18.

Morse, Victoria. 2007. 'The role of maps in later medieval society: twelfth to fourteenth century', in: David Woodward (ed.) The History of Cartography. Volume 3. Cartography in the European Renaissance (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 2007), Part 1, pp. 25-52 (esp. 36-7, 44-6).
    -- 1996. 'A complex terrain: church, society, and the individual in the works of Opicino de Canistris (1296-ca.1354)'. Ph.D. diss., University of California-Berkeley, 1996. [For the use by Opicino of portolan charts in Vat.Lat. 6435, see pp. 169-232 - via Morse (2007) p.47-8.]

Motzo, Bacchisio Raimondo. 'Il Compasso da navigare, opera italiana della metà del secolo XIII', Annali della Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia della Università di Cagliari 8 (1947): 1-137. [See Debanne 2011 for a new edition, with place-name index, and Gautier Dalché (1995, pp.229-53) for corrections to the Motzo transcriptions and an index to the names found in "Lo compasso".] [There is also a German translation: Christian Weitemeyer, Compasso de Navegare, erstes Seehandbuch Mittelmeer aus dem 13. Jahrhundert (Nienburg: Betzel Verlag, 1996).]
    -- see also under Terrosu Asole

Muldoon, James (ed.). Travellers, intellectuals and the world beyond Medieval Europe (London & New York: Ashgate, 2010). [Including a section {not yet seen}: 'Visualizing knowledge of the world: cartography in Europe and Islam in the Middle Ages'.]

Muñoz Gómez, Víctor. 2015. 'Puertos, abras, cabos e islas: la topografía medieval de la costa atlántica de Andalucía a través de las cartas portulanas (ss. XIV-XVI)' in: Eduardo Aznar Vallejo (et al.) De mar a mar. Los puertos castellanos en la Edad Media (Universidad de La Laguna, 2015), pp. 179-212 (Including a chapter: 'La costa atlántica Andaluza en las cartas portulanas' pp.189-.)
    -- 2013. 'Fuentes para el estudio del litoral de la Andalucía atlántica en la Baja Edad Media. Una aproximación' in: Roberto J. González Zalacain , et al. (eds) Actas de las V Jornadas 'Prebendado Pacheco' de Investigación Histórica (Ilustre Ayuntamiento de la Villa de Tegueste, 2013).

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Nakas, Yannis D. '14th-Century Galleys in the Black Sea: Ships in the Romance of Alexander the Great', International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 37.1 (2008): 77–87. [With a useful bibliography relating to medieval shipping.]

Nebenzahl, Kenneth. Maps from the Age of Discovery: Columbus to Mercator (London: Times Books, 1990). [Describing and illustrating the Catalan Atlas, the 1424 Pizzigano and so-called Columbus Chart (Census 28, 141, 10).]

Nemlioğlu, Candan & Yasemin Nemlioğlu Koca. 'Knowledge sharing among seamen: 15th-16th century Latin and Ottoman portolans [i.e. charts not texts] of the Mediterranean', in: Dejanirah Couto, et al., eds) Studies in Turkish Maritime History - Seapower, Technology and Trade (Denizler Kitabev: Piri Reis University Publications, 2014), pp. 390-97.

Nenov, Kiril. 'The Black Sea region according to an anonymous Pisan geography', Bulgaria Mediaevalis. Studies in honour of Professor Vassil Gjuzelev, Vol.2 (Sofia: Bulgarian Historical Heritage Foundation, 2011), pp.131-40. [Examining the toponyms and suggested trading routes listed in the 'Liber de existencia riveriarum et forma maris nostri Mediterranei', edited by Patrick Gaultier Dalché in 1995.]

Newitt, Malyn D.D. 2010. The Portuguese in West Africa, 1415-1670: a Documentary History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
    -- 2004. A history of Portuguese overseas expansion, 1400-1668 (London: Routledge, 2004).

Nicolai, Roel. 2021. 'The Mapping of Africa on the Nautical Charts of the Age of Discovery', Terrae Incognita (November 2021). [Returning to the theory of his doctoral dissertation (2014) that the Mediteranean outlines on the portolan charts were too accurate for medieval instruments or abilities, it is here argued that for the African coasts, "The projective properties of the regional charts are incompatible with the navigation and charting techniques used in that period. Therefore, serious doubt is cast on the established view that Portuguese pilots and cartographers were the original creators of the source charts". In each instance the ultimate sources remain to be identified.]
    -- 2018 (b). ’Analysing MapAnalyst and its application to portolan charts’, e-Perimetron, 13:3 (2018): 121-40.
    -- 2018 (a). 'The navigation data in the Compasso de Navegare - accuracy and provenance'. Paper presented at the Second International Workshop on the Origin and Evolution of Portolan Charts. Lisbon, 7-8 June, 2018. [See also: Corrigenda.]
    -- 2017. 'De onbekende oorsprong van portolaankaarten', Caert-Thresoor, 36:2 (2017): 45-52.
    -- 2016 (a). The Enigma of the Origin of Portolan Charts. A Geodetic Analysis of the Origin of Portolan Charts (Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2016). With: 'Corrigenda for The Enigma of the Origin of Portolan Charts.docx' (2019).
    -- 2016 (b). 'Geodetic and methodological aspects of the research into the origin of portolan charts', Paper presented at the First International Workshop on the Origin and Evolution of Portolan Charts, Lisbon, June 2016.
    -- 2015 (a). 'Waar komen portolaankaarten vandaan', Geo-Info 12,4 (2015): 36-41.
    -- 2015 (b). 'The Premedieval Origin of Portolan Charts: New Geodetic Evidence', Isis 106: 3 (2015): 517-43.
    -- 2015 (c). 'How old are portolan charts really? Response of Roel Nicolai to Joaquim Gaspar and Tony Campbell', Maps in history (Brussels International Map Collectors’ Circle), 54 (2015): 8-11.
    -- 2014. University of Utrecht (Science), March 2014. PhD thesis: 'A critical review of the hypothesis of a medieval origin for portolan charts' [The full text of the 484-page doctoral thesis] With: 'Corrigenda. A Critical Review of the Medieval Origin for Portolan Charts by Roel Nicolai' (2019). See also the Summary; and a comment from a Dutch site translated into English and posted to Strange Maps, 'Portolan Charts "Too Accurate" to be Medieval'. [The thesis was published by Brill in 2016 as The Enigma of the Origin of Portolan Charts: a Geodetic Analysis of the Hypothesis of a Medieval Origin]
      The author's summary of this thesis in 'Maps in History', (newsletter of the Brussels Map Circle) 52 (2015) was answered critically in the following issue (No.53), separately by Tony Campbell and Joaquim Alves Gaspar, with a further response from the author in No.54 (see above).
     - see also Campbell (2020). The mental wind compass of the medieval Mediterranean: the rediscovery of its structure and interpretations of its use (including a section authored by Roel Nicolai).

Nigro, Giampiero. Mercanti in Maiorca. Il carteggio datiniano dall'isola (1387-1396) (Florence: Istituto de Storia Economica Datini, 2003).

Nogueira Gomes, Magali. O Manuscrito Espagnol 30 e a Família do judeu Cresques Abraham. Um estudo sobre as fontes da Cartografia Maiorquina. (Séculos XIII-XIV) [2013 doctoral thesis from the Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras,e Ciências Humanas about Census 28.]

Nogueira Gomes, Magali & Mario de Biasi. 'Fontes e técnicas da cartografia medieval portulano', Terra Brasilis (Nova Série) [Online], 4 | 2015 (February 2015). Also Here.

Nordenskiöld, Adolf Erik. Periplus: an essay on the early history of charts and sailing-directions (Stockholm: Norstedt, 1897). [Including (pp.25-44) transcriptions from the Luxoro Atlas, Catalan Atlas, 1426 Ziroldi (Census 81, 28, 116) and 1593 Volcius.] The Swedish version is now available as a gigantic (1 GB) PDF here; and again here.

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Obied, Carmen Tânia Macleroy. Rethinking Roman perceptions of coastal landscapes: a case-study of the Levant. PhD thesis, University of Southampton (Archaeology), 2016.

Obrist, Barbara. 'Wind Diagrams and Medieval Cosmology', Speculum, 72:1 (January 1997): 33-84. [Available via JSTOR subscription.]

O'Connor, Sarah, 'A brief, heavily historiographical survey of maritime technology in use during the Crusades, with attention paid to the effects of methods of production and predominant weather patterns in the Mediterranean. Paper written for an undergraduate class at the University of New Hampshire in 2005'.

Oldham, R. D. 'The Portolan Maps of the Rhône Delta: a Contribution the History of the Sea Charts of the Middle Ages', Geographical Journal, 65: 5 (1925): 403-24.

Oledzka, Eva.'A Venetian Set of Portolan Charts’, in Hall, Debbie (ed.), Treasures from the Map Room (Oxford: Bodleian Library Publishing, 2016), pp. 86-7. [A note on the Bodleian's 15th-century (?) Italian atlas, MS Douce 390 (Census 57), providing a detailed desciption of the original wooden boards and the leather container. ]

Olshin, Benjamin B. 'A Sea Discovered: Pre-Columbian Conceptions and Depictions of the Atlantic Ocean', Doctoral Dissertation, University of Toronto, 1994.

Ortega-Villoslada, Antonio. 'Instruments de navegació i portolans en la Mallorca medieval', Randa 65 (2010) Miscel·lània Gabriel Llompart, 5 (Barcelona, 2010): 5-27.

Orvietani Busch, Silvia. Medieval Mediterranean Ports: the Catalan and Tuscan Coasts, 1100 to 1235 (Leiden : Brill, 2001).

Özdemir, Kemal. Ottoman nautical charts and the Atlas of Ali Macar Reis (Istanbul: Marmara Bank, 1992). (Census 136, illus. pp.120-1).

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Pagani, Lelio. Pietro Vesconte: Carte nautiche (Bergamo: Grafica Gutenberg, 1977). [A facsimile of the 1318 (Vienna) Vesconte atlas (Census 4), including (pp.36-43) a full transcription of the names.]

Paladini, Angel. 'Sobre la génesis de los portulanos', Boletin de Información del Servicio Geográfico del Ejército 76 (1993).

Palomo, Àngel Arana. 'L'Atles Català' [A website about the Catalan Atlas, in Catalan, with separate notes on the various aspects, 2002.]

Pastoureau, Michel. Les armoiries. Typologie des Sources du Moyen Âge Occidental, 20. 2nd Edition (Turnhout: Brepols, 1998). [Overview and classification of medieval sources for armorials and flags.]

Pastoureau, Mireille. Voies Océanes. Cartes marines et grandes découvertes (Paris: Bibliothèque nationale, 1992).

Paviot, Jacques. 2003. 'Les cartes et leur utilisation à la fin du Moyen Âge: l'exemple des principautés bourguignonnes et angevines', Itineraria 2 (2003): 201-28. [French inventories, including some portolan charts.]
    -- 2001. 'Une mappemonde genoise disparue de la fin du XIVe siècle', in G & C.N.R.S. Duchet-Suchaux (eds), L'iconographie. Études sur les rapports entre textes et images dans l'occident mediéval. Cahiers du Léopard d'Or, 10 (Paris: Le Léopard d'Or, 2001): 69-97. [As pointed out by Van Duzer 2012, p.128, n.116, the manuscript describing this chart [Biblioteca Universitaria, Genoa, MS. B.1.36] referred to Antoniotto Usodimare and must therefore be no earlier than 1455. Coincidentally, Paviot had noted similarities between this chart and Pareto's of 1455.]

Peck, Douglas T. 2002. 'Theory vs practical application in the history of early ocean navigation', Terrae incognitae 34 (2002): 46-59.
    -- 2002? The history of early dead reckoning and celestial navigation: empirical reality versus theory. [18-page, self-published article without source or footnote - date given elsewhere as 2002, by Douglas T. Peck]

Pelletier, Monique. 1999. Mappamondi (Paris, 1999). [Facsimile of the Catalan Atlas (Census 28) on CD-ROM, with a revised text based on that of Buchon & Testu, 1842.]
    -- 1995. 'Sobre l'Atlles Català. Unes cartes mallorquines dels segles XIV i XV', Cartografia Mallorquina (Barcelona: Diputació de Barcelona, 1995) pp.151-69. (Census 28).
    -- 1994. 'Le portulan d'Angelino Dulcert, 1339', Cartographica Helvetica 9 (1994): 23-31. [= Dulceti; including a colour plate, pp.28-9 (Census 13).]
    -- 1992. 'Peut-on encore affirmer que la BN possède la carte de Christophe Colomb?', Revue de la Bibliothèque Nationale (1992): 22-5. (Census 10).
    -- see also under Leduc

Peters, Konrad. 'Zur Diskussion über di Herkunft und Entstehung der Portolankarten', Vermessungsingenieur, 5 (1985): 183-8.

Petti Balbi, Giovanna. 2004. 'Las ciudades marítimas italianas y el norte de Africa en época medieval: Relaciones políticas y económicas', in: Carmen Trillo (ed.) Relaciones entre el Mediterráneo cristiano y el norte de Áfricaen época medieval y moderna (Granada, 2004), pp.19-51.
    -- 1996. 'Distanze e programmi di viaggio sul mare', in: Spazi, tempi, misure e percorsi nell'Europa del basso medioevo. Atti del XXXII convegno storico internazionale (Todi, 8-11 ottobre 1995 - organised by the Centro italiano di studi sul basso medioevo - Accademia Tudertina) (Spoleto, 1996) pp.271-95.
    -- 1986. 'Nel mondo dei cartografi. Battista Beccari maestro a Genova nel 1427', Columbeis 1 (1986): 125-32.

Pflederer, Richard L.
    -- 2023. 'Portolan charts as instruments of territorial & economic expansion'. Calafia: The Journal of the California Map Society, no.1: 21-23.
    -- 2021 [and with updated editions thereafter]. The Pflederer Census of Portolan Charts & Atlases (Privately published, 2021, as an Excel spreadsheet, with introductory text and analysis – first issued in 2009. Updated editions are distributed periodically, at least annually, and are sent out free of charge upon receipt of a request sent to: richard@pflederer.net. The most recent edition is dated March 2021). [A listing of all portolan charts & atlases currently existing or known to have existed until recent times. Information on each entry includes (1) last recorded location, (2) production details and (3) cross-referencing to dozens of earlier listings and censuses. This allows the 2175 entries to be sorted or filtered by any of the 36 fields, e.g., last recorded location, authorship, year or a specific reference number. A valuable new feature is a link to the MEDEA Chart Database, which refers back to this Census and also provides enlargeable scans for many of the charts described].
    See also Luis A. Robles Macías, ‘What Dick Pflederer’s Census tells us about portolan charts’, Maps in History (Newsletter of the Brussels Map Circle), 71 (September 2021): 15-19. [An analysis of surviving charts and atlases, considering the quantity from different periods, the authorship of unsigned works, and the places of production and their (often very different) current locations.]

    -- 2019. 'Pietro Vesconte, Pioneer of Early Sea Charts', The Portolan, Journal of the Washington Map Society, 106 (Winter 2019): 27-36.
    -- 2012. Finding their way at sea: the story of portolan charts, the cartographers who drew them and the mariners who sailed by them ('t Goy-Houten: HES & De Graaf, 2012).
    -- 2010. 'The Portolan Chart: Dimensions of the Genre'. [235-minute webcast of the talks given by Evelyn Edson, Alison Sandman, Richard Pflederer, John Hessler and Fenella France, at the Library of Congress on 21 May 2010; requires RealPlayer.]

    -- Catalogues of individual library holdings of portolan charts from all periods. The series to date comprises the complete collections of the Archivio di Stato (Florence), Bodleian Library (Oxford), British Library (London), Huntington Library (San Marino, California), National Maritime Museum (Greenwich) and Newberry Library (Chicago). Including the forthcoming Library of Congress catalogue, this represents a total of 315 entries containing about 1,200 individual charts. For each chart, some 50 data points are reported (in full on the CD; with a selection in the printed versions), including bibliographical information (authorship, dating, inscriptions), physical aspects (dimensions, condition, etc), and cartographic details (e.g., coverage area, scale, measurements between known points), all in standardised format allowing statistical analysis. The presence and number of visual features is noted, for example the complexity of the rhumb line network, compass roses, flags, rulers and ships. Provenance details are given and reproductions cited. Each of the catalogues in the series described below (with the exception of the British Library) has good quality colour illustrations of the separate charts and a sample from each atlas. Each catalogue is accompanied by a CD-ROM which presents the data in Microsoft Access for ease of viewing. Data can be transferred to Excel for mathematical manipulations. Copies of these catalogues are available from the author: richard(at)pflederer.net
    -- 2014. Catalogue of the Portolan Charts and Atlases in the Library of Congress, Washington D.C. [with a CD-ROM]. (Census 152).
    -- 2013. Catalogue of the Portolan Charts and Atlases in the Archivio di Stato, Firenze [self-published, 2013; with a CD-ROM]. (Census 64-73).
    -- 2008. Catalogue of the Portolan Charts and Atlases in the Bodleian Library [self-published, 2008; with a CD-ROM]. (22 charts and 10 atlases, including Census 57).
    -- 2006. Catalogue of the Portolan Charts and Atlases of the National Maritime Museum [self-published, 2006; with a CD-ROM]. (45 charts and 16 atlases, including Census 41-2).
    -- 2005. Catalogue of the Portolan Charts and Atlases of the Newberry Library [Chicago] [self-published, 2005; with a CD-ROM]. (10 charts and 14 atlases, including Census 138-9).
    -- 2004. Catalogue of the Portolan Charts and Atlases of the Huntington Library [San Marino, California] [self-published, 2004; with a CD-ROM]. (10 charts and 19 atlases, including Census 151).
    -- 2001. Catalogue of the Portolan Charts and Atlases in the British Library [self- published, 2001; with a CD-ROM]. (58 charts and 46 atlases, including Census 43-54).

    -- 2004(a). 'Portolan charts: the key to navigation in the Mediterranean and beyond', The Portolan 60 (Fall 2004): 40-46.
    -- 2004(b). 'Portolan charts: a Mediterranean tradition becomes an indispensable tool of the Age of Discovery', Journal of the International Map Collectors' Society 99 (Winter 2004): 13-25.
    -- 2002. 'Richard Pflederer evaluates a vital tool of the Age of Discovery', History Today 52:5 (2002): 20-7.

Piccardi, Marco. 'Small, medium and large scale maps in coastal studies. What happened to Arno’s Mouth between the XIVth and the XIXth Century?', e-Perimetron, 9:4 (2014): 176-95). For a revised version of this see Marco Piccardi & Enzo Pranzini, 'Carte a piccola, grande e grandissima scala negli studi sull'evoluzione del litorale. Cosa è successo a Bocca d'Arno tra il XVI e il XIX secolo?', in L'Universo, Anno XCIV, 5 (2014).

Piccardi, Marco & Fortunato Lepore. 'Looking for a coastal profile: Elba Island as a model for historical iconographic interpretation', e-Perimetron, 7:4 (2012): 205-19. [Touching briefly on portolan charts.]

Piemontese, Gianfranco. Castelli Europei. Paese per Paese (select the relevant country for a sequence of webpages on medieval castles, with location maps and some historical details; see also Castelli Italiani and Castelli Africani.

Piggin, Jean-Baptiste. 'Portolan Charts of Pietro Vesconte', on the Macro-Typography blog, 28 February 2015. [A brief note on the Vatican's Sanudo atlas, Vat. lat. 2972, and toponyms along the France-Belgium coast.]

Pikoulas, Giannes A. Lexiko ton oikismon tis Peloponnisou: Palaia kai nea toponymia [Lexicon of the settlements of the Peloponnese: Old and new toponymy of the Peloponnese] (Athens, 2001).

Piloni, Luigi. Carte geografiche della Sardinia (Cagliari: Fossataro, 1974).

Pinheiro Marques, Alfredo. 1996. Vida e obra do Infante Dom Pedro (Figueira da Foz: Centro de Estudos do Mar, 1996).
    -- 1995(a). A cartografia dos descobrimentos portugueses ([Mafra]: ELO, [1995]).
    -- 1995(b). 'The discovery of the Azores and its first repercussions in cartography', Arquipélago. Revista da Universidade dos Açores 1:2 (1995): 7-16.
    -- 1994. A maldição da memória do Infante D. Pedro e as origens dos descrobimentos portugueses (Figueira da Foz: Centro de Estudos do Mar, 1994 [1995]).
    -- 1993. 'Portolan charts found in Portugal', The Map Collector 65 (Winter 1993): 42-44. (Census E.8(A), E.9(A) & E.10(A)).
    -- 1990. Portugal e o descobrimento do Atlântico: síntese e cronogia / Portugal and the discovery of the Atlantic: a summary and a chronology ([Lisbon]: Imprensa Nacional - Casa da Moeda, 1990).
    -- 1989(a). 'Alguns fragmentos de mapas encontrados em Viana do Castelo e outras novidades do ano de 1988 para a história da cartografia', Revista da Universidade de Coimbra 35 (1989), p.309-22. (Census E.9(A) & E.10(A))
    -- 1989(b). 'The Dating of the Oldest Portuguese Charts', Imago Mundi 41 (1989): 87-97. [Discusses the following, with his redatings: Modena (1471-82 - Census 94), P.Reinel (1484-92 - Census 5), Aguiar (1492 - Census 146), Torre do Tombo fragment [no MS number given] (c.1510 - Census 126).]
    -- 1987(a). Origem e desenvolvimento da cartografia portugesa na epoca dos descrobrimentos [The origins and development of Portuguese cartography at the time of the Discoveries], ([Lisbon]: Imprensa Nacional - Casa da Moeda, 1987). [Reassesses the dating of the Modena, Reinel and Aguiar charts - Census nos 94, 5, 146 - and discusses Bianco, Pizzigano, Vallseca, etc.] (See review by Robert Bremner, Imago Mundi 42:145).
    -- 1987(b). Portugaliae Monumenta Cartographica, 2nd ed. (reduced facsimile of the 1960 ed., with, in addition:) Volume VI (corrective addenda, particularly relevant for the dating of the earliest charts). ([Lisbon]: Imprensa Nacional - Casa da Moeda, 1987) pp.75-81. (With bilingual Portuguese and English texts; for Census entries, see his 1989b work)

Pinna, Margherita. Il Mediterraneo e la Sardegna nella cartografia musulmana (dall'VIII al XVI secolo) 2 vols (Nuoro: Istituto Superiore Regionale Etnografico, 1996).

Pinto, Karen C. Medieval Islamic Maps: an Exploration (University of Chicago Press, 2016).

Pistarino, Geo. 1988. I Gin dell'Oltremare. Civico Istituto Colombiano, Studi e Testi - Serie Storica, 11 (Genoa, 1988).
    -- 1981. 'Gente del mare nel commonwealth genovese', in: (Rosalba Ragosta ed.), Le genti del mare Mediterraneo. XVII colloquio internazionale di storia marittima. Napoli, 28-31 gennaio 1980 (Naples: Lucio Pironti, 1981), 1:203-89.
    -- on Pistarino's extensive writing about the Genoese in the Black Sea, see Laura Balletto in her edited collection in: Oriente e Occidente tra medioevo ed età moderna. Studi in onore di Geo Pistarino, Vol. 1 (Acqui Terme, 1997), pp. XCIX-CLII.
see also under Karpov

Pittarello, Ornella. Algune raxion per marineri. Un manuale veneziano del secolo XV per gente di mare (Padua: Il Poligrafo, 2006).

PMC - see above, Cortesão, Armando & Avelino Teixeira da Mota. Portugaliae monumenta cartographica

Poleggi, Ennio, ed. Città portuali del Mediterraneo, storia e archeologia. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Genova 1985. (Genoa: SAGEP, 1989).

Polo Seibanti, Claudio de. '"Arte del navigare", manoscritto inedito datato 1464-1465', in: Imago et mensura mundi. Atti del IX Congresso internazionale di storia della cartografia (Rome: Istituto del'Enciclopedia Italiana, 1985), vol. I, p. 71-9.

Pomey, Patrice (ed.). La Navigation dans l'Antiquité (Aix-en-Provence: Édisud, 1997). [The first part, 'La navigation' includes 'Les conditions de la navigation' (pp.18-35 - though not legible in that pdf) and 'Les dangers de la navigation'.]

Porathe, Thomas & Gary Svensson. 'From portolan charts to virtual beacons: an historic overview of mediated communication at sea'. [A paper delivered at the International Visual Literacy Association’s conference, Newport, Rhode Island, October 2003 and published in Selected Readings.]

Porro Gutiérrez, J.M. 'El reflejo de las Canarias en la cartografia anterior al siglo XVI', in F. Morales Padrón (ed.) XIII Coloquio de Historia Canario-Americana (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria: Cabildo de Gran Canaria, 2000), pp. 3305-22.

Presciuttini, Paola. Coste del Mediterraneo nella cartografia europea 1500-1900 (Ivrea, Torino: Priuli & Velucca, 2004).

Prontera, Francesco. 'Il Mediterraneo: scoperta e rappresentazione', Geographia Antiqua 16-17 (2007-2008): 41-59.

Pryor, John H. 2006. Logistics of Warfare in the Age of the Crusades (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006)
    -- 1992. Geography, technology, and war. Studies in the maritime history of the Mediterranean 649-1571 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992). [Including an account of Mediterranean navigation, pp.12-24.]
    -- 1988. Geography, Technology, and War: Studies in the Maritime History of the Mediterranean, 649-1571 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), pp.87-101.

Pujades i Bataller, Ramon J. 2023. Els mapamundis baixmedievals: del naixement del mapamundi híbrid a l’ocàs del mapamundi portolà / Late medieval world maps: from the birth of the hybrid to the demise of the portolan mappamundi (bilingual, Catalan and English). Barcelona: Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya (ICGC), 2023 [released online in March 2024]. [786 pp., profusely illustrated and freely available online HERE. Because the online page numbering starts with the preliminaries, when looking for a page you need to add 22 to the number cited in the Contents.]
    -- 2016. 'Mappaemundi veneziane e catalane del basso medioevo: due rami nati da uno stesso tronco', in: Ingrid Baumgärtner & Piero Falchetta (eds), Venezia e la nuova 'oikoumene'. Cartografia del Quattrocento / Venedig und die neue 'Oikoumene'. Kartographie im 15. Jahrhundert (Rome, Venice: Centro Tedesco di Studi Veneziani, 2016), pp.73-96 (?).
    -- 2015. La cartografia medieval i Barcelona: l'adquisició d'un fragment de Guillem Soler. Llibrets de Sala 19.(Barcelona: Ajuntament de Barcelona: MUHBA, Museu d'Història de Barcelona, 2015).
    -- 2014. 'Pareto, Bartolomeo', Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, vol.81 (2014). [Revealing that Pareto was also the author of a mappamundi fragment in the Topkapi Sarayi Müzesi, Istanbul (H 1827) [Census 134], as well as the fragments of a large map of Italy, 1457 (Bilbao, Archivo Histórico Provincial de Bizkaia, Pergaminos 14 i 15), on which see a reproduction of one section: Here (p.34).]
    -- 2013(a). 'De Génova a Venecia y Mallorca: la emigración de cartógrafos ligures y la expansión mediterránea de la cartas de navegar (s. XIV)', in: Circolazione di uomini e scambi culturali tra città (secoli XII-XIV). XXIII Convegno Internazionale di Studi del Centro Italiano di Studi di Storia e d'Arte (Pistoia 13-16 maggio 2011) (Pistoia: Centro Italiano di Studi di Storia e d'Arte, 2013) pp. 79-167.
    -- 2013(b). 'The Pisana Chart: really a primitive portolan chart made in the 13th century?' Cartes et géomatique, 216 (June 2013): 17-32 (paper delivered at the international conference, 'D'une technique à une culture: les cartes marines du XIIIe au XVIIIe siècle', Paris 3 December 2012).
    -- 2013(c). [Editors' astract of a talk given about 'a selection of Venetian mappaemundi from the 15th century and their relations to portolan charts and world maps of the Genoese-Catalan tradition from before 1470', in the international interdisciplinary conference,
'Venice and the new Oikoumene: Cartography in the 15th century', in the Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Venice & Deutsches Studienzentrum in Venedig, 8-9 October 2013.]
    -- 2012. 'Les cartes de navigation, premières cartes à large diffusion sociale', in: Catherine Hofmann, Hélène Richard & Emmanuelle Vagnon (eds). L'Åge d'or des cartes marines; quand l'Europe découvrait le monde (Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France & Seuil, 2012), pp. 60-71.
    -- 2011. 'Explotación económica y aprehensión intelectual del espacio en la baja edad media y el Renacimiento: el potencial informativo de la cartografía y los textos técnicos de carácter geográfico para los historiadores de la economía', in: Francesco Ammannati (ed.) Dove va la storia economica? Metodi e prospettive. Secc. XIII- XVIII / Where is economic history going? Methods and prospects from the 13th to the 18th centuries. Atti della "Quarantaduesima Settimana di Studi", 18-22 aprile 2010 (Florence: Firenze University Press / Fondazione Istituto Internazionale di Storia Economica "F. Datini", 2011) pp.263-87. [ Discusses (pp.269-71) his suggested later datings for several key early works. He places the Liber de existencia riveriarum in the 'first decades of the 13th century', rather than the c.1200 proposed by Gautier Dalché, considers Lo compasso to have been written as late as the 1320s, and, from what he considers to be evidence of their post-Pizzigano toponymy, he assigns the Carte Pisane, Cortona and Lucca charts to the second half of the 14th century. Further elaboration of these points is promised in a later work - see his 2013(b).]
    -- 2010(a). 'Les cartes portolanes: orígens, característiques i aportacions de la cultura catalana a la primera cartografia realista', Revista de Catalunya 257 (2010): 23-44.
    -- 2010(b). 'Espais viscuts i espais marginats: les representacions del món de la Baixa Edat Mitjana', Studium medievale 3 (2010): 27-42.
    -- 2009. 'La cartografia nàutica medieval: vers una millor comprensió d'un gran tresor patrimonial de la cultura catalana', Drassana [Museu Marítim de Barcelona] 17 (2009): 52-61.
    -- 2009. La carta de Gabriel de Vallseca de 1439 (Barcelona: Lumenartis, 2009). [In Catalan, with English text, 274-358 (Contents on p.285), and also a Spanish version. As with the 2007 book, there is no index. The Bibliography is pp.145-50 and pp.151-81 contains a complete list of the chart's place-names with modern identifications. Another major study, this time focussing on the career and work of one well- documented chartmaker, but with additional material about Vallseca's antecedents and workshop practices in Majorca.] (Census 128).
    -- 2007(a). Les cartes portolanes: la representació medieval d'una mar solcada. [In Catalan and Spanish, with English text 'Portolan charts: the medieval representation of a ploughed sea', pp. 401-526]. (Barcelona: Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya; Institut d'Estudis Catalans; Institut Europeu de la Mediterrània; Lunwerg, 2007). N.B. In May 2024, the full text was placed freely online and can be found HERE. [A major study, with a DVD featuring scans of virtually all the surviving charts and atlases up to 1469. See the update page to the 'Chapter' for numerous comments on this important work. ]
    -- 2007(b). 'Apriorismes nacionalistes i recerca històrica: el cas de la cartografia portolana', Cartografia: la visió del món (2007): 77-81.
    -- 2005. 'Escriure l'espai baixmedieval: la producció cartogràfica al Mediterrani occidental del segles XIII, XIV i XV'. Doctoral Dissertation, Universitat de València, 2005.
    -- 2002. 'La toponímia litoral del Pais Valencià en la cartografia portolana medieval', Congrés internacional de toponímia i onomàstica catalanes (València 18-21 d'abril de 2001) (València: Denes Editorial, 2002) pp.357-73 (reproduced in the table in Pujades, 2007 pp. 386-93)
    -- 2001. 'Memòries d'una mar solcada: el dibuix i l'escripturació del litoral valencià en la cartografia portolana medieval', Afers. Fulls de recerca i pensament 40 (2001): 625-39.
    -- see (also) under Llompart i Moragues, et al. (2005)

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Quaini, Massimo. 1992. 'Il fantastico nella cartografia tra Medioevo ed età moderna', L'uomo e il mare nella civiltà occidentale: da Ulisse a Cristoforo Colombo. Atti del convegno (Genova 1-4 giugno 1992). "Atti della Società Ligure di Storia Patria", 32 (1992): 315-43.
    -- 1974. 'Catalogna e Liguria nella cartografia nautica e nei portolani medievali', Atti del 1o Congresso Storico Liguria-Catalogna: Ventimiglia-Bordighera-Albenga-Finale-Genova, 14-19 ottobre 1969 (Bordighera: Istituto Internazionale di Studi Liguri, 1974): 549-71. [Discussing medieval ports in the two regions.]

Quartapelle, Alberto. 2024. Angelino Dulceti's ms 25691 Undated Chart Held at the British Library precedes his 1339 chart at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France? A Proposal. (Self-published 2024). ["This finding enhances our understanding of Dulceti's working methodology, in particular, the order in which the different graphic elements were inserted into the chart, and how he changed his work approaches over the years."]
    -- 2023. ‘El mapa más antiguo de las Islas Canarias: el ms 25691 de Angelino Dulceti en la British Library de Londres’, Revista de Historia Canaria, 205 (2023): 323-36.
    -- 2023. 'Giovanni da Carignano: Fourteenth-Century Cartographic Innovator', Terrae Incognitae: The Journal of the Society for the History of Discoveries, 55:1 (April 2023): 65-81. [Announcing important new findings, derived from the author's now freely available remastered photograph in the Medea Chart collection. While arguing for a date of 1329, he suggests that Carignano might have started drawing the map prior to the transfer of the papal seat to Avignon in 1309.] A pre-print version is available on Academia.
    -- 2017.‘El redescubrimiento de las Islas Canarias en el anno domini 1339’. Revista de Historia Canaria , 199 (2017): 11-37. [About the 1339 Angelino Dulcert chart, ‘which could be the first to represent the Canary Islands’.]

Queirazza, G. Gasca (et al.). Dizionario di toponomastica, storia e significato dei nomi geografici italiani. New ed. (Turin; Utet, 2003).

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Randles, W.G.L. 2000. Geography, cartography and nautical science in the Renaissance: the impact of the Great Discoveries (Aldershot, U.K, & Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate Variorum, 2000).
    -- 1998. 'The emergence of nautical astonomy in Portugual in the XVth century', Journal of Navigation 51 (1998): 46-57.
    -- 1993. 'The alleged nautical school founded in the fifteenth century at Sagres by Prince Henry of Portugal, called the "Navigator"', Imago Mundi 45 (1993): 20-28.
    -- 1989. 'De la carte-portulan méditerranéene à la carte marine du monde des grandes découvertes: la crise de la cartographie au XVIe siècle', in: Monique Pelletier (ed.) Géographie du Monde au Moyen Âge et à la Renaissance (Paris: Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques (CTHS), 1989) pp.125-31.
    -- 1988. ‘From the Mediterranean Portulan Chart to the Marine World Chart of the Great Discoveries: the Crisis in Cartography in the Sixteenth Century’, Imago Mundi 40 (1988): 115-18.

Rapoport, Yossef & Emilie Savage-Smith. Lost maps of the Caliphs: Drawing the world in eleventh-century Cairo (University of Chicago Press, 2018). ["The first general overview of The Book of Curiosities and the unique insight it offers into medieval Islamic thought". Chapter 5, 'The view from the sea: Navigation and representation of maritime space', gives detailed information about the knowledge of Muslim sailors prior to the portolan chart.]

Ratti, Antonio. 'A lost map of Fra Mauro found in a sixteenth century copy', Imago Mundi 40 (1988): 77-85. [About a chart signed and dated by Giorgio Callapoda (Sideri) in 1541, and sold at auction on 24 October 1984 in the Salamon-Agustoni-Agrati Gallery, Milan, bought by a Milan bookseller and apparently sold to a French client. The illustrations show the chart to be quite unlike Callapoda's work, but closely similar to (though not directly copied from) Vatican, Borgia V (Census 153), identified by Almagiá, Monumenta Cartographica Vaticana 1: 32-40, as the product of Fra Mauro's workshop, and hence much influenced by Bianco's 1436 atlas.]
see also under Bevilacqua

Raynaud-Nguyen, Isabelle.1993. 'Les portulans: texte et iconographie', in: G. Duchet-Suchaux (ed.), Iconographie médiévale: image, texte, contexte (Paris, 1993), pp.91-107.
    -- 1986. 'L'hydrographie et l'événement historique: deux exemples', Revista da Universidade de Coimbra 32 (1986): 199-210. (Census A3).

Rebuffat, Enrico. 'Geografi, naviganti, esploratori: vicende di un toponimo cilice', in: Orbis Terrarum (Stuttgart: Steiner) 1999, 5: 195-216 [using portolano and chart evidence for south Anatolian place-names].

Régnier-Bohler, D. (ed.). Croisades et pèlegrinages: récits, chroniques et voyages en Terre Sainte XII- XVI siècle (Paris: Robert Laffont, 1997).

Rehmeyer, Julie. The Mapmaker's Mystery. Extraordinarily accurate maps of the medieval Mediterranean present historians with a puzzle: How were they made? A mathematical analysis offers some clues, Discovery (June 2014), pp.40-5. [Describing John Hessler's claim that portolan charts, from the 14th century onwards, responded to changes in magnetic declination.]

Relaño, Francesc. 2001(a). The shaping of Africa: cosmographic discourse and cartographic science in late medieval and early modern Europe (Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate, 2001). ['The impact of portolan charts', pp.91-115 (mostly about the Catalan Estense world map).]
    -- 2001(b). 'Mapamundis catalans: una tradició cartográfica desapercebuda', Treballs de la Societat Catalana de Geografia 52 (2001): 393-409.

Rey Pastor, Julio & Ernesto García Camarero. La cartografía mallorquína (Madrid, 1960). (The entire text of the 207-page book - a major study on the Catalan portolan charts).

Ribaudo, Vera (ed.). Libro de l'arte de la mercatura Benedetto Cotrugli (Venice: Edizioni Ca'Foscari, 2016).

Ribeiro, António Silva. A Hidrografia nos Descobrimentos Portugueses (Lisbon: Publicações Europa- América, 1994).

Richard, Jean. ’Les gens de mer vus par les croisés et par les pèlerins occidentaux au Moyen Âge’, in Rosalba Ragosta (ed.) Le genti del mare Mediterraneo, I, (Naples 1981) pp. 341-355.

Richey, Michael. 'A Voyage of Navigational Investigation', Journal of Navigation 48 (1995): 349-60. ['a seagoing investigation into some of the navigational problems that would have confronted the Portuguese discoverers of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries returning to mainland Portugal from the coasts of Africa and the Atlantic archipelagos'.]

Riera, Jaume i Sans. For a growing collection of English translations by Juan Ceva of his articles on the Jewish chartmakers of Majorca, especially Cresques (some co-authored with Gabriel Llompart i Moragues), see the Cresques Project, e.g.:
    -- 1977. 'Jafudà Cresques, jueu de Mallorca', Randa 5 (1977): 52-66) [English translation by Juan Ceva, 2010, as 'Jafudà Cresques, Jew of Majorca'.]
    -- 1975. 'Cresques Abraham, jueu de Mallorca, mestre de mapamundis i de brúixoles', in: L’Atlas Català (Barcelona, Diàfora, S.A., 1975). [English translation by Juan Ceva, 2010, as 'Cresques Abraham, Jew of Majorca, Master of Mappaemundi and Compasses'.]
    -- see also under Llompart i Moragues.

Riquer, Martín de. 'La heráldica en el Libro del conocimiento y el problema de su datación' in: Gómez Moreno, Angel, Huerta Calvo, Javier & Víctor Infantes (eds) Arcadia: Estudios y textos dedicados a Francisco López Estrada. Dicenda. Cuadernos de Filología Hispánica 6 (Madrid: Universidad Complutense, 1987) pp. 313-20.

Ristow, Walter W. & R.A. Skelton. Nautical charts on vellum in the Library of Congress (Washington, 1977). (Census 152).

Ritchie, Rear Admiral George Stephen. '500 years of graphical and symbolical representation on marine charts', International Hydrograpic Review, LIII (1) (January 1976): 141-53.

Robilant, Andrea di. Venetian Navigators: the Voyages of the Zen Brothers to the Far North (London: Faber & Faber, 2011). ['I do believe Nicolò and Antonio Zen sailed to the North Atlantic in the fourteenth century and that Nicolò Zen the Younger published in 1558 a narrative loosely based on the letters his forefathers sent home. There is nothing in the life of Nicolò Zen the Younger to suggest he was even remotely involved in a forgery; on the other hand both the narrative and map had their fair share of blunders, which eventually became ammunition in the hands of his detractors'.]

Robles Macías, Luis A. 2023. 'Did size matter?: The Aegean Sea on portolan charts of different resolutions'. Calafia: The Journal of the California Map Society, 2023, no. 1: 19-21 and no. 2: 36-39.
.     -- 2014. 'The longitude of the Mediterranean throughout history: facts, myths and surprises', e-Perimetron, 9:1 (2014): 1-29. [Considering the period up to 1750. See also here for a link to 'a table with the full list of cartographic works analyzed in the study along with the numeric results for each of them'.]
    -- 2012. 'A mapmaking workshop in Palos around 1500', on the 'Historia y Mapas' blog, 8 April 2012. [A brief note, also in Spanish, about a hitherto overlooked chartmaking centre in Palos de la Frontera, near Huelva in southern Spain.]

Rodriguez Wittmann, Kevin. See Wittmann.

Rohen, André. 'Untersuchungen zur Genauigkeit und zur Genese von Portolankarten - Columbuskarte (1492)', unveröffentlichte Diplomarbeit, Universität Essen, FB Vermessungswesen, 2002. (Census 10).

Rohr, Heinz. Die Entwicklung des Kartenbildes Westeuropas zwischen Kanal und Mittelmeer von den ältesten Weltkarten bis Merkator (Leipzig: Robert Noske in Borna, 1939). [Name lists, pp.220-77, covering the Belgium and French coasts, e.g. Bruges - Bayonne and Port Vendres - Menton, and the Mediterranean islands (from a wide range of charts, from Carte Pisane to the 1569 Homem), with modern identifications.]

Röhricht, Reinhold. 'Marino Sanudo sen. als Kartograph Palästinas', Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 21 (1898): 84-126. [Discussing the Palestine names on the Sanudo-Vesconte maps.]

Romanelli, Giandomenico. 'Cittá di costa, immagine urbana e carte nautiche', in: Susanna Biadene (ed.) Carte da navigar. Portolani e carte nautiche del Museo Correr, 1318-1732 (Venice: Marsilio, 1990), pp.21-32.

Romano, Virginia. 'Sulla validità della "Carta Pisana"’, Academia Pontaniana, N.S. 32 (1983): 89-99. (Census 14).

Rombai, Leonardo. 'La lunga sequenza dell'imprecisione cartografica: il litorale e l'arcipelago toscano secoli XV-XIX', in: Simonetta Conti (ed.) Amate sponde. Le rappresentazioni dei paesaggi costieri mediterranei. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studi del Centro di Studi Storico-Geografici, Gaeta, 11-13 dicembre 2003 (Formia: Graficart, 2007), pp.203-311.

Romero-Girón Deleito, Juan. 2021. Historia de la cartografíala: Evolución de los mapas. Tercera parte. El mundo moderno: El Renacimiento y las grandes exploraciones, Volumen 1. [A self-published 349-page, well-illustrated book in Spanish, covering "the beginning of the Modern Age, the fifteenth century, that is, the cartography of the Renaissance and pre-Columbian nautical cartography ... It is not a research book but it is much more than a book of divulgation. It is a compendium or a synthesis of the most important texts that have been published. It offers a complete and easy access to maps and their interpretation through History, at a level that combines a careful content and relevant images". The work is thorough and up to date - see Chapter V, 'La cartografía náutica precolombina, pp.239-316.]
    -- 2020. Historia de la Cartografía. Segunda Parte. El Mundo Medieval. De Bizancio al Renacimiento, 2020. [A self-published 447-page, well-llustrated book in Spanish - thorough and up to date - see Chapter V, 'La cartografía náutica medieval', pp.319-84.]
    -- 2019. 'A rare and unpublished medieval islamic map' (April 2019). [About a 12th-century MS in the Royal Library of the Monastery of El Escorial (Ms. árabe 1636), 'which presents several peculiar characteristics, and especially, a water inlet on the west coast of Africa that it could be a representation of the Gulf of Guinea, three centuries before its exploration and discovery by the Portuguese'.]

Rose, Susan. 'Rutters, courses and voyages: navigation at sea in north-west Europe in the fifteenth century', The Mariner's Mirror, 109(1), February 2023, pp. [7]-18.

Rosselló i Verger, Vicenç M. 2015. 'Tides and the Catalan Atlas [1375]', Catalan Social Sciences Review, 5 (2015): 87-106 [an English translation by Mary Black of the 2009 article, 'Marees i atles Catalá [1375]' - see below].
    -- 2014. Els exotopònims de les cartes portolanes (medievals), in: Emili Casanova & Emilio Payà (eds), Topònims entre dos llengües: l'exonímia, una manifestació de la globalitat (Valencia: Denes, 2014), pp.143-56.
    -- 2011. 'La carta de navegar. Un instrumento mediterráneo de amplia difusión', Medievalismo, 21 (2011): 55-79.
    -- 2010. 'Cartes de navegar medievals: puntualitzacions i aportacions noves' [see under 2008(b) below],
    -- 2009. 'Marees i atles Catalá [1375]', Cuadernos de Geografía , 86 (2009): 165-82. [See above under 2015 for an English translation.]
    -- 2008(a). 'Les cartes medievals de navegar', Cartografia històrica dels Països Catalans (Universitat de València - Institut d'Estudis Catalans, 2008), pp.41-93.
    -- 2008(b). 'Cartes de navegar medievals: puntualitzacions i aportacions noves', Métode 58 (2008): 295-309. [Also apparently in Joan Mayol, et al. (eds) Homenatge a Bartomeu Barceló i Pons, geògraf (Palma de Mallorca: Lleonard Muntaner, 2010).]
    -- 2006. 'Cartografia i navegació dels segles XIII al XV', in: A. Bonner & F. Bujosa Homar (eds), Història de la ciència à les Illes Balears, vol. 1: L’edat mitjana (Mallorca: Govern de les Illes Balears, 2006) pp.261-311.
    -- 2004. Toponímia, geografia i cartografia, collected studies, ed. Emili Casanova (Universitat de València, 2004). [The final section, covering Valencia and the Balearic Islands, is entitled, 'Cartografia i Cartes Portolanes' (pp.279-403).]
    -- 2002. 'La incorporació dels topònims baleàrics a la cartografia portolana', in: Homenatge a Guillem Rosselló Bordoy (Palma: Govern de les Illes Balears, 2002), pp.881-902.
    -- 2001. 'Les cartes portolanes medievals, una glòria catalana?', Treballs de la Societat Catalana de Cartografía 52 (2001): 411-38.
    -- 2000(a). 'Les cartes portolanes mallorquines', in: Cicle de conferències sobre història de la cartografia. 10è curs: La cartografia catalana (Barcelona: Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya, 2000), pp. 19-115 [Bibliografia, pp.107-15].
    -- 2000(b). 'Topònims Pitiüsos de les cartes portolanes (1290-1620)', Societat d'Onomàstica : butlletí interior 83 (2000): 57-67. [Reissued in: Toponimia, geografia i cartografia (València: Universitat de València, 2004) pp. 365-99.]
    -- 1998. 'Topònims del migjorn valencià a les cartes portolanes (1280-1661)', A sol post: revista internacional de Ilengua i literatura (1998): 101-110.
    -- 1997(a). 'Cartografia portolana:la trajectòria d'alguns topònims emergents', XXI Col.loqui de la Societat d'Onomàstica. Ontinyent, 1995 (Valencia: Denes, 1997), pp.935-45.
    -- 1997(b). 'Els italianismes en les cartes portolanes mallorquines', Estudis de llengua i literatura en honor a Joan Veny (Barcelona: Publicacions de la'Abadia de Montserrat, 1997). Vol.1, pp.39-62.
    -- 1995(a). 'Cartes i atles portolans de les col.leccions espanyoles' - see the following entry.
    -- 1995(b). Portolans procedents de col.leccions espanyoles. Segles XV-XVII [catalogue of an exhibition at the Salò Tinell, Barcelona, on the occasion of the 17th conference of the International Cartographic Association, 5-17 September 1995] (including the essay: 'Cartes i atles portolans de les col.leccions espanyoles' (pp.9-60) [also in English (pp.337-71), French and Spanish] (Barcelona: Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya, 1995). This English text makes accessible some of the archival findings by the Catalan historian, Gabriel Llompart i Moragues (whose earlier works are also listed above). See the Catalan text for illustrations and toponymic tables, e.g. east coast of Spain (p.21) with the names between Cartagena and Narbonne plotted on a modern outline.
      # 54 charts and atlases held in Spain (just a dozen could not be considered) are described and illustrated, with the captions (and the suggested dating?) by Carme Montaner i Garcia. Surprisingly, there are still just five pre-1500 works (if the Juan de la Cosa is excluded): a fragment of 'c.1400' in Palma (No.1, p.63, Census E.13, Pujades C76); the Venetian chart of 'c.1420' in Barcelona (pl.3 & pp.49-52/365-7, Census 127); Vallseca 1439 (pl.3 & pp.53-6/369-71, Census 128); Benincasa, 1468 (No.4, p.66, Census 129), with, but not recorded here, the unlettered chart in the Barcelona Archives (Pujades C 55, Census E.11).
    -- 1995(c). 'Cartografia portolana: la trajectoria d'alguns topònims emergents', in: XXI Col.loqui de la Societat d'Onomàstica, Ontinyent, 1995. pp. 935-45. [Reissued in: Toponimia, geografia i cartografia (València: Universitat de València, 2004) pp. 309-18.]

Rossi, Ettore. 'Una carta nautica araba inedita di Ibrāhīm al-Mursī datata 865 Egira = 1461 Dopo Cristo', Compte rendu du Congrès Internationale de Géographie 5 (1926): 90-5. [Compares the toponymy with other charts, for the short stretch Larissa-Alexandria, p.95.]

Russell, Peter E. 2000. Prince Henry 'the Navigator': a life (New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 2000).
    -- 1997. 'La heráldica en el Libro del Conosçimiento', in: Studia in Honorem Prof. Martín de Riquer' (Barcelona: Jaume Vallcorba Ed., 1997), II, pp. 687-9.

Russo, Luigi. 'Mediterranean Sea between 11th and 12th centuries: perceptions, fears, and transformations of the mental landscape in the Central Middle Ages', in: Gianluca Casagrande & Davide Del Gusto (eds), Air, Fire, Water and Earth(quake). Perceived threats from and to the environment: case studies between Geography and History (Rome: IF Press, 2014). [Including discussion and bibliography relating to pilgrimage and the Crusades.]

Ruzzin, Valentina. 2014. 'Alcune osservazioni in meritto al ritrovamento della "Bonna Parolla" genovese', in: Michele Bacci & Martin Rohde (eds), The Holy Portolano: The Sacred Geography of Navigation in the Middle Ages ' Le Portulan sacré: La géographie religieuse de la navigation au Moyen Âge (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2014), pp.221-6.
    -- 2013. 'La Bonna Parolla. Il portolano sacro genovese', Atti della Società Ligure di Storia Patria, new series, 53 (2013), 2, pp. 21-59. [Describing and itemising a second, Ligurian, version of the sante parole, in the Archivio di Stato, Genoa. Already recorded in 1351, this provided a litany for prayers directed to local saints around the Mediterranean and even as far as the British Isles. A version is retrievable from Reti Medievali (via login). See also Bacci (2003)]

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Sabater Rebassa, Tina; Antònia Juan Vicens & Magdalena Cerdà Garriga. 'Las cartas náuticas de la escuela cartográfica mallorquina. Aspectos artísticos y contexto productivo', Hortus Artium Medievalium, 22 (2016): 331-42.

Sáenz-López Pérez, Sandra. 2015? 'Pintores del mundo entre los siglos XIV y XVII' [Painters of the world between the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries], in: Dueños del mar, señores del mundo, a volume accompanying the exhibition at the Museo Naval de Madrid, 17 December 2015-22 May 2016 (pp.168-191).
    -- 2015. La Cartografía Náutica Bajomedieval y el Arte de su Realización [Late Medieval Cartography and the Art of Making It]. Colección Museo Cartográfico “Juan de la Cosa” 11 (Mexico: Frente de Afirmación Hispanista, 2015). [53 pages.]
    -- 2012. 'La pluralidad religiosa del mundo en el siglo XV a través de la carta náutica de Mecia de Viladestes (1413)', Anales de Historia del Arte, 22 (2012 - Núm. Especial): 389-404.
    -- 2009(a). 'El portulano, arte y oficio', in: Mariano Cuesta Domingo & Alfredo Surroca Carrascosa (eds) Cartografía medieval hispánica: imagen de un mundo en construcción (Madrid: Real Sociedad Geográfica, Real Liga Naval Española, 2009) pp. 111-34.
    -- 2009(b). 'Las voces silenciosas de las torres de señales: un sistema de comunicación mediterráneo ahora perdido, Anales de historia del arte, nº extra (2009): 323-37. [“Silent voices of the signal towers: a Mediterranean system of communication now lost” - used for a kind of semaphore, e.g. Excel No. 383 Montjuic.]
    -- 2007(a). 'Imagen y conocimiento del mundo en la edad media a través de la cartografia hispana', Doctoral dissertation, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, 2007. 2 vols (I. Text, II. Illustrations). [A study of the Beatus mappaemundi, then a detailed examination of 'Las cartas náuticas mallorquina' (pp.291-908), including analysis of city vignettes, rulers and flags; with Contents and conclusions in English, pp 859-908.]
    -- 2007(b). ‘La peregrinación a La Meca en la Edad Media a través de la cartografía occidental’, Revista de poética medieval 19 (2007): 177-218
    -- 2007(c). 'Un cuento árabe para la imagen del Sultán de Babilonia en las cartas náuticas mallorquinas', in: Valerià Paül Carril & Joan Tort Donada (eds) Territorios, paisajes y lugares: Trabajos recientes de pensamiento geográfico (Cabrera del Mar; Madrid: Galerada; AGE, 2007) pp. 313-26.
    -- 2006. 'La Reconquista cartográfica: el Islam peninsular en la cartografía medieval hispana', Treballs de la Societat Catalana de Geografia 61-62 (2006): 279-301.
    -- 2005. 'La representación de Gog y Magog y la imagen del Anticristo en las cartas náuticas bajomedievales', Archivo Español de Arte 78 (2005): 263-76.

Salinari [formerly Emiliani], Marina. 'Notizie su di alcune carte nautiche di Grazioso Benincasa', Rivista Geografica Italiana 59 (1952): 36-42. [With notes on the names found on the separate 1472 Benincasa chart of the Adriatic and the Adriatic sheet in the 1473 Bologna atlas - Census 118 & 60.]

Salmon, Thomas. Estratto degli Accadimenti nel Levante narrati nel Compendio dell'Antica e Moderna Istoria della Repubblica di Venezia di Tommaso Salmon Scozzese. Stampato in Venezia da Giambattista Albrizzi nel 1754. [Online version of an index of places, providing links to the various Venetian possessions in the Mediterranean, noting historical events, etc. but be aware that this was published in the mid-18th century.]

Sánchez García, Jesús Ángel. 'Unveiling a Ghost / Desvelando un fantasma. Sobre un mapamundi árabe, la Torre de Hércules y las representaciones de faros en la cartografía medieval', Memoria y Civilización, 20 / 2017. Revista del Departamento de Historia, Historia del arte y geografía, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Navarra (2017), pp.259-308. [Including 'Representations of lighthouses in medieval cartography'.]

Sandman, Alison. 'The Birth and Use of the Navigational Chart' [235-minute webcast of the talks given by Evelyn Edson, Alison Sandman, Richard Pflederer, John Hessler and Fenella France, at the Library of Congress on 21 May 2010; requires RealPlayer.]

Sarazin, Jean-Yves. Nouveaux Mondes (Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France & Bibliothèque de l'Image, 2012). [Focusing on five of the works in the BnF exhibition, 'L'Åge d'or des cartes marines: quand l'Europe découvrait le monde', October 2012-January 2013 [see under Hofmann, et al., above]: Catalan Atlas, Caverio planisphere (c.1504-5), Atlas Miller (1519), Le Testu Cosmographie (1556) & H. Gerritsz. Pacific chart (1622).]

Savadi, Fateme & Tony Campbell. Quṭb al-Dīn al-Shīrāzī’s Textual Map of the Mediterranean Sea (1282) and Its Evident Source in a Portolan Chart, Imago Mundi, 75:2 (2023): 199-231.

Savage-Smith, Emilie. ‘Das Mittelmeer in der islamischen Kartographie des Mittelalters’, in: Hannah Baader & Gerhard Wolf (eds), Das Meer, der Tausch und die Grenzen der Repräsentation (Zurich/Berlin: Diaphanes, 2010), pp. 239–62.
See also under Rapoport.

Savorelli, Alessandro. 'Cartes et figures de l'espace français, XIVe - XVI siècle: représentation de l'espace et exercice du pouvoir', in: Patrick Boucheron (et al., eds) Entre idéel et matériel. Espace, territoire et légitimation du pouvoir (v. 1200- v. 1640) (Paris: Sorbonne, 2018), pp. 237-66.

Scafi, Alessandro. 2013. Maps of Paradise (London: British Library; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013).
    -- 2006. Mapping Paradise: A History of Heaven on Earth (London: British Library; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006).

Scandurra, Enrico. 'The Maritime Republics: Medieval and Renaissance ships in Italy', in: George F. Bass (ed.), A History of Seafaring, Based on Underwater Archaeology (London: Omega, 1974).

Scheller, Benjamin. 'Erfahrungsraum und Möglichkeitsraum: Das sub-saharische Westafrika in den Navigazioni Atlantiche Alvise Cadamostos', in: Ingrid Baumgärtner & Piero Falchetta (eds), Venezia e la nuova 'oikoumene'. Cartografia del Quattrocento / Venedig und die neue 'Oikoumene'. Kartographie im 15. Jahrhundert (Rome, Venice: Centro Tedesco di Studi Veneziani, 2016), pp. 201-20 ?).

Schmieder, Felicitas. 'Paradise Islands in the East and West – Tradition and Meaning in Some Cartographical Places on the Medieval Rim of the World', in: Torstein Jørgensen & Gerhard Jaritz, Isolated islands in medieval nature, culture and mind (Budapest: Central European University Press, 2011), pp.3-21. [Including discussion of the Atlantic Islands on 14th- and 15th-century charts.]

Schnayder, Edward. 'Mapa Chopina', Polski przeglad kartograficzny 16,3 (1984): 123-6 [about the 1439 Vallseca (Census 128), seen by F. Chopin and G. Sand in Palma de Mallorca in 1838].

Schober, Axel. 'Numerische Untersuchungen zur Darstellungsgenauigkeit mittelalterlicher Seekarten', unveröffentlichte Diplomarbeit, Universität Essen, FB Vermessungswesen, 1987.

Secchi, Laura. Carte nautiche da musei e biblioteche della Liguria dal XIV al XVII secolo (Bologna: Analisi, 1988)

Seignobos, Robin. 2017. 'L'origine occidentale du Nil dans la géographie latine et arabe avant le XIVe siècle', in Nathalie Bouloux, Anca Dan & Georges Tolias (eds), Orbis disciplinae: Hommages en l’honneur de Patrick Gautier Dalché (Turnhout: Brepols, 2017), pp.371-94.
    -- 2014. 'Nubia and Nubians in Medieval Latin Culture. The Evidence of Maps (12th-14th cent.)', in: Julie R. Anderson & Derek A. Welsby (eds), The Fourth Cataract and Beyond. Proceedings of the 12th Conference for Nubian Studies (Louvain/Paris/Walpole, MA: Peeters, 2014), pp. 989-1004. [Dealing with eight world maps but not the illustrated Catalan charts and world maps.]
    -- 2011. 'La Nubie entre Nil et Niger. Hydrographie et articulation des sources dans la cartographie de l’Afrique intérieure au XVIe siècle', Revue du Comité Français de Cartographie, 210 (December 2011): 79-94.

Selles, Manuel. Instrumentos de Navegación. Del Mediterráneo al Pacífico (Madrid & Barcelona: Lunwerg Ed., 1994).

Selva, Orietta. 'La toponomastica nella cartografia dell'Istria, di Fiume e della Dalmazia nella cartografia storica dalle prime testimonianze alla fine del secolo XVIII', in: Luciano Lago, Orietta Selva & Dragan Umek (eds), La toponomastica in Istria, Fiume e Dalmazia. Vol. II, Parte 2: Aspetti cartografici e comparazione geostorica (Florence: Istituto Geografico Militare, 2009) pp. 31-60.

Serrão, Joel & A.H. de Oliveira Marques (ed.). Nova história da expansão portugues. Volume II. A expansão quatrocentista Lisbon: Editorial Estampa, 1998).

Sevillano Collom, Francisco. 'Gabriel de Vallseca, cartógrafo mallorquin del siglo XV', in: Homenaje al Dr. D. Juan Reglà Campistol (València: Unversitat de València, Facultat de Filosofia i Ciències de l'Educació, 1975) I:159-62.

Sezgin, Fuat. 2004. 'El origen arabe de los mapas europeos', Mediterraneum: el esplendor del mediterráneo medieval (Barcelona: Lunwerg, 2004) pp.373-87.
    -- 2001. 'Arabischer Ursprung europäischer Karten', Cartographica Helvetica 24 (July 2001): 21-28 [referring to the influence of al-Biruni, al-Idrisi and Abu l-Fida on the portolan charts].
    -- 2000-2007. Mathematical Geography and Cartography in Islam and their Continuation in the Occident / Mathematische Geographie und Kartographie im Islam und ihr Fortleben im Abendland (Frankfurt am Main: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch- Islamischen Wissenschaften an der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität. 2000-07), 4 vols: representing volumes 10-13 of Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums. [Vol.11 discusses navigation and portolan charts; Vol.13 is in German only.]
    -- 1987. The contribution of Arabic-Islamic Geographers to the formation of the world map (Frankfurt, 1987) (Census 136 is Pl.18).

Shapinsky, Peter D. 'Polyvocal Portolans: Nautical Charts and Hybrid Maritime Cultures In Early Modern East Asia', Early Modern Japan: An Interdisciplinary Journal 14 (2006): 4-26.

Sheehan, Kevin Eric. 2014. 'The Functions of Portolan Maps: an evaluation of the utility of manuscript nautical cartography from the thirteenth through sixteenth centuries', 360-page PhD dissertation, Durham University, July 2014. [Concluding that, "Although some evidence suggests portolan maps were used at sea, it is largely circumstantial and unspecific. The evaluation of their construction, specific functions, the output of cartographers, and their practical utility, instead indicates that portolan maps were not navigationally useful, but embodied a number of other purposes".]
    -- 2012. 'Utility and aesthetic: the function and subjectivity of two fifteenth century Portolan charts', The Portolan: Journal of the Washington Map Society 83 (Spring 2012): 7-23. [Discussing the 1403 Beccari (Census 144) and Roselli 1465 (Census 53) charts.]
    -- 2009. 'The Appearance of Lighthouses on Portolan Charts: 1300-1600 AD', in: Judith Mills & Marjolein Stern (eds), North and South, East and West: Movements in the Medieval World: Proceedings of the 2nd Postgraduate Conference of the Institute for Medieval Research, University of Nottingham, 30-31 May 2009 . [See for references to earlier works on the subject.]

Shipley, D. Graham J. Pseudo-Skylax's Periplous: The Circumnavigation of the Inhabited World. Text, Translation, and Commentary (Exeter, 2011; reprinting Liverpool, 2014). [Corrigenda to the first full English translation of the 4th century BC text.]

Sider, Sandra. 1993. 'Compass roses and wind systems as iconographic elements in portolan charts', 4-page paper distributed at the 15th International Conference on the History of Cartography, Chicago, Illinois, 1993.
    -- 1988(a). Jehuda Ben Zara's marine map of 1497. Borg. VII. Belser facsimile editions from the Vatican Library. (Belser Inc.: Yorktown Heights, N.Y., 1988). (Census 154). [Earlier version, 1983, with commentary by Arthur Dürst.]
    -- 1988(b). Andrea Benincasa's marine map of 1508. Borg. VIII. Belser facsimile editions from the Vatican Library. (Belser Inc.: Yorktown Heights, N.Y., 1988). [Earlier version, 1984, with commentary by Arthur Dürst.]

Sider, Sandra, et al. Maps, charts, globes: five centuries of exploration: a new edition of E.L. Stevenson's "Portolan charts" and catalogue of the 1992 Exhibition (New York: Hispanic Society of America, 1992). [Describing and reproducing: Ziroldi 1447 (Census 147 - a dated signature appeared during cleaning: "Jacobus de Ziroldis de venecijs me fecit in ano dni m.cccc.xlvii"), Roselli 1468 (Census 150), Nicolo 1470 (Census 148), Anon,'K15' (Census 149)].

Siebold, Jim. 2017. Early Medieval Maps, 400-1300, Book IIA, Issue 7 (Self-published, Index to Maps & Monographs, 2017). [466 pp., 450 images.]
    -- 2017. Late Medieval Maps, 1300-1500, Issue 7 (Self-published, Index to Maps & Monographs, 2017). [397 pp., 370 images.]
    -- see also his Academia page for a wide range of fully illustrated, self-published monographs on diverse aspects of map history, defined by period (from the Ancient World onwards), theme, place of origin, etc.

Skelton, Raleigh A. 'A Contract for World Maps at Barcelona, 1399-1400', Imago Mundi, 22 (1968): 107-13.

Smith, Thomas R. 'Manuscript and printed sea charts in seventeenth-century London: the case of the Thames School', in: Norman J.W. Thrower (ed.) The compleat plattmaker: essays on chart, map, and globe making in England in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (University of California Press, 1978) pp. 45-100.

Snyder, John. 'Projection for sea charts', in: David Woodward (ed.) The History of Cartography. Volume 3. Cartography in the European Renaissance (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 2007), Part 1, pp. 365-81.

Soler, William and Albert Ganado. The charting of Maltese waters (Book Distributors Ltd, Malta, 2013).

Soucek, Svat. 'Islamic charting in the Mediterranean', in: J.B. Harley & David Woodward (eds) The History of Cartography. Volume 2, Book 1: Cartography in Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992), pp.263-92. [Available online in pdf format since June 2011.] (Discussing and illustrating the three early Arabic works: the 'Maghreb', al-Katibi and al-Mursi charts - Census 89, 136, 132).

Soustal,Peter. [Text in Greek] (The Aegean coast of the southwestern part of Thrace as reflected in old maps and portolans), in: Charalambos Bakirtzis, Nikos Zekos & Xenophon Moniaros (eds) Byzantinische Forschungen 30. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Thracian Studies, Komotini, 18–22 April 2007 (Amsterdam 2011), pp. 57–70, 738–743. [With a brief note in English on the identification of the early toponyms for the northern Aegean coast (Thrace).]

Spadolini, Ernesto. 'Il "Portolano" di Grazioso Benincasa', La bibliofilia 9 (1907): 58-62, 103-109, 205-34, 294-99, 420-34, 460-63.

Spangenberg Yanes, Elena. 'Toponimi. Indice alfabetico generale. Indice per sezioni'. In: Giorgio Sìderi detto Calapodà, Portolano 6. 1550. Saggi e apparati (Rome: Treccani, 2016), pp. 139-234.

Stanley, Joe. 'Negotiating Trade: Merchant Manuals and Cross-Cultural Exchange in the Medieval Mediterranean', Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 30: 1 (January 2018): 102-112.

Steger, Ernst. 'Untersuchungen über italienische Seekarten des Mittelalters auf Grund der kartometrischen Methode' (Göttingen, 1896).

Steinberg, Philip E. 'Insularity, sovereignty and statehood: the representation of islands on portolan charts and the construction of the territorial state', Geografiska Annaler 87 B,4 (2005): 253-65. [Referring to the islands' 'uniqueness' and 'distinctive representation' but without providing detail (p.259).]

Stephens, A. E. '"The Booke of the Sea Carte": A Seaman's Manual of the Sixteenth Century', Imago Mundi, 2 (1937): 55-9.

Stevenson, Edward Luther. Portolan charts: their origin and characteristics with a descriptive list of those belonging to The Hispanic Society of America. Publications of the Hispanic Society of America 82. (New York: The Hispanic Society of America, 1911).
    -- see also under Sider

Stover, Philip R. A Reference List on Portolan Charts (scroll down the left-hand margin for a summary bibliography, mounted on the MapHist site, January 2001).

Stringa, Paolo. Genova e la Liguria nel Mediterraneo insediamenti e culture urbane (Genoa: Sagep, 1982).

Suárez, Thomas. Shedding the veil. Mapping the European discovery of America and the world, based on selected works from the Sidney R. Knafel Collection of early maps, atlases and globes (1434-1865) (Singapore, etc.: World Scientific Pub., 1992), pp. 30-6. (Census E.15).

Szaniawska, Lucyna. 2014. 'Poludniowy Baltyk i ziemie polskie na portolanach wykonanych w krajach sródziemnomorskich od poczatku XIV do konca XVI wieku' [The south Baltic Sea and Polish lands on portolan charts made in the Mediterranean countries from the beginning of the 14th until the end of the 16th century], in: Radoslaw Skrycki (ed.), Kartografia morska i krain nadmorskich [Cartography of marine and coastal lands] (Szczecin: Uniwersytet Szczecinski. Instytut Historii i Stosunków Miedzynarodowych; Polska Akademia Nauk Zespól Historii Kartografii, 2014), pp.9-44. [Portolan charts are discussed and illustrated on pp.17-27(?).]
    -- 2001. 'Reprint portolanu Kolumba', Biuletyn Informacyjny Biblioteki Narodowej 2[?] (2001): 6-9. [Census 10].

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Tangheroni, Marco. 1999. 'La prima espansione di Pisa nel Mediterraneo: secoli X-XII: riflessioni su un modello possibile', Medioevo, Mezzogiorno, Mediterraneo. Studi in onori di Mario del Treppo (Naples, 1999) pp.3-23.
    -- 1996. Commercio e navigazione nel medioevo (Roma-Bari: Laterza, 1996).
    -- 1994. 'Fibonacci, Pisa e il Mediterrano', in: Marcello Morelli & Marco Tangheroni (eds) Leonardo Fibonacci. Il tempo, le opere, l'eredità scientifica (Pisa: Pacini, 1994).
    -- 1983. 'Economia e navigazione nel Mediterraneo occidentale tra XI e XII secolo', Medioevo. Sagi e rassegne 16 (1983): 9-24.

Tangheroni, Marco & Olimpia Vaccari. 'L'osservatorio datiniano di Livorno e la navigazione mediterranea tra Tre e Quatrocentro', L'uomo e il mare nella civiltà occidentale: da Ulisse a Cristoforo Colombo. Atti del convegno (Genova 1-4 giugno 1992). "Atti della Società Ligure di Storia Patria", 32 (1992) pp.139-64.

Tannous, Wilfrid. 'Des hommes et des cartes. La mobilité des marins de Majorque et la cartographie majorquine dans la première moitié du XIVe siècle', in Histoire monde, jeux d’échelles et espaces connectés. Société des historiens médiévistes de l’Enseignement supérieur public. XLVIIe Congrès de la SHMESP (Arras, 26-29 mai 2016) (Paris: Editions de la Sorbonne, 2017), pp. 221-36.

Tebel, René. Das Schiff im Kartenbild des Mittelalters und der Frühen Neuzeit: kartographische Zeugnisse aus sieben Jahrhunderten als maritimhistorische Bildquellen. Schriften des Deutschen Schiffahrtsmuseums 66 (Bremerhaven: Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum; Wiefelstede: Oceanum, 2012). [English summary, pp.249-52 - a thorough study of ships on early maps. The 750-page PDF map catalogue is available here (click on 'Kartenkatalog' and then enter as password: Teb07dsm)]

Teixeira da Mota, Avelino. Topónimos de origem Portuguesa na costa ocidental de Africa desde o Cabo Bojador ao Cabo de Santa Caterina. Centro de Estudos da Guiné Portuguesa, no.14 (Bissau: Centro de Estudos da Guiné Portuguesa, 1950).

Teleki, Pal (Paul). 'A XV. és XVI. századok kartográfiájának egyegy emléke a Nemzeti Múzeumban', Földrajzi Közlemények 34 (1906): 280-7. [On the 1474 Benincasa atlas (Census 58) comparing the west African names (Ceuta-Mesurado) from that work with the 1466 & 1467 Paris atlases (2779 & 1988).]

Terrosu Asole, Angela & Bacchisio Raimondo Motzo. Il portolano di Grazia Pauli: opera italiana del secolo XIV trascritta a cura di Bacchisio R. Motzo. Collana di studi italo-iberici, 12. (Cagliari: Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Istituto sui rapporti italo-iberici, 1988 [or STEF, 1987]).

Tibbetts, Gerald R. 'The role of charts in Islamic navigation in the Indian Ocean', in: J.B. Harley & David Woodward (eds) The History of Cartography. Volume 2, Book 1: Cartography in Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992), pp.256-62. [Available online in pdf format since June 2011]

Tobler, Waldo. Publications: Reprinted Articles, e.g. 'The Scale Problem for Old Maps' and 'Medieval Distortions: The Projections of Ancient Maps'.

Todorova, Elizaveta. 1981. 'Medieval Genoese nautical cartography on the west Black Sea coast', Études balkaniques 2 (1981): 118-31.
    -- 1978. 'More about "Vicina" and the West Black Sea Coast', Etudes Balkaniques 2 (1978): 124-38.
    -- 1975. 'Settlement place names of the west Black Sea coast mentioned by Byzantine authors during the XIth-XVth centuries', Actes du XIe congrès international des sciences onomastiques (Sofia, 1975). Vol. II.

Tolias, George. The Greek portolan charts, 15th-17th centuries: a contribution to the Mediterranean cartography of the modern period (Athens: Olkos, 1999). (Discussing and reproducing Pelechan [Adriatic fragment, 1459, pl. 1 & p.179 - Census 110]).

Tonini, Camillo. 'Sulla rotta dei pellegrinis: carte nautiche, portolani e isolari dalle collezioni del Museo Correr', in: Sante Graciotti, La Dalmazia nelle relazioni di viaggiatori e pellegrini da Venezia tra Quattro e Seicento. Atti del convegno (Roma 22-23 maggio 2007). (Rome: Bardi, 2009): 21-44.

Tonini, Camillo & Piero Lucchi (eds), Navigare e descrivere. Isolari e portolani del Museo Correr di Venezia, XV-XVIII secolo (Venice: Marsilio, 2001).

Torroja Menéndez, Jose María. 'La cartografía mallorquina', Boletín de la Real Sociedad Geográfica 128 (1992): 41-59.

Trethewey, Ken. Ancient Lighthouses. See his Academia page, for a multi-part series of papers (2018), including 'Part 1: The Literature', and 'Part 8: An Overview'.

Tucci, Ugo. 1991. 'La pratica della navigazione', in: Alberto Tenenti & Ugo Tucci (eds) Storia di Venezia. Vol. XII. Il Mare (Rome: Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana, 1991) pp.527-59.
    -- 1990. 'La carta nautica', in: Susanna Biadene (ed.) Carte da navigar. Portolani e carte nautiche del Museo Correr, 1318-1732 (Venice: Marsilio, 1990) pp.9-19. (Presumably discussing just one of the four early portolan works, namely the 1318 Vesconte atlas, Census 120).
    -- 1985. 'I servizi marittimi veneziani per il pellegrinaggio in Terrasanta nel medioevo’, Studi veneziani , New Series 9 (1985) 43-66.
       see also Cotrugli

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Uçar, Dogan. 1987. 'Über eine Portolankarte im Topkapi-Museum zu Istanbul, Kartographische Nachrichten, 37 Jg.6 (December 1987): 222-8 [about the 1413 chart by Ahmad al-Tanji (formerly described as Ibrahim Kâtibî - Census 136); includes a table of 14 charts, 1416-1881 in the Topkapi Sararyi].
    -- 1981. Mürsiyeli Ibrahim Haritasi: the chart of Ibrahim of Mursiye [Murcia] 1461 (Istanbul, 1981). (Census 132).

Uggeri, Giovanni. 1998. 'Portolani romani e carte nautiche. Problemi e incognite', Porti, approdi e linee di rotta nel Mediterraneo antico. Studi di Filologia e Letteratura (Università di Lecce), 4 (Galatina, 1998) pp.31-78.
    -- 1994. 'Un portolano del Salento del XII secolo. Tracce in Guidone ed Edrisi', in: Cesare Marangio & Antonio Nitti (eds) Scritti di Antichità in memoria di Benita Sciarra Bardaro (Fasano, 1994) pp.165-70.

Unger, Richard W. Ships on maps: Pictures of power in Renaissance Europe (Basingstoke & New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010). [Focusing mostly on the 16th century.]

Urness, Carol. Portolan charts (Minneapolis: James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota, 1999) [a general introduction, illustrating and discussing the 1424 chart, the 1466 Roselli and the 1489 Canepa charts - Census 141-3].

Uzzano, Giovanni di Bernardo d'Antonio da Uzzano. 'Compasso a mostrare a navicare dall'uno stretto all'altro', 1440, in: Pagnini, Della decima e delle gravezze imposte dal Comune di Firenze. Vol.IV, Book II (Lisbon & Lucca, 1766) pp.196-284.

Uzielli, Gustavo & Pietro Amat di San Filippo. Studi biografici e bibliografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia. 2. Mappamondi, carte nautiche, portolani ed altri monumenti cartografici specialmente italiani dei secoli XIII-XIV. (Rome: Tipografia romana, 1882).

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Vagnon[-Chureau], Emmanuelle. 2021. 'When religious geography meets the geography of humanists. The ‘Tabula moderna Terrae Sanctae’ in the copies of the ‘Geography’ of Ptolemy in the fifteenth century', in Christoph Mauntel (ed.), Geography and Religious Knowledge in the Medieval World, (Berlin, De Gruyter, 2021), pp.223-46.
    -- 2019. 'Le détroit de Gibraltar dans les cartes marines et portulans européens du XIIe au XVIe siècle', in Françoise des Boscs, Yann Dejugnat et Arthur Haushalter (éd.), Le détroit de Gibraltar (Antiquité-Moyen Âge), I. Représentations, perceptions, imaginaires . Coll. De la Casa de Velásquez (174). (Madrid, 2019), pp. 275-90. [Based on a conference paper from 2013.}
    -- 2019. 'Giovanni Battista Cavallini and the Tradition of Mediterranean Portolan Atlases, in: Panagiotis N. Doukellis (éd.), Mediterranean Cartographic Stories. Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-century Masterpieces from the Sylvia Ioannou Foundation Collection, Athènes, Ad Venture, Sylvia Ioannou Foundation, 2019, pp. 37-52.
    -- 2018. 'Les cartes marines, XIVe-XVIIe siècle: une appropriation de l'espace', in: Patrick Boucheron (et al., eds) Entre idéel et matériel. Espace, territoire et légitimation du pouvoir (v. 1200-v. 1640) (Paris: Sorbonne, 2018), pp.219-35.
    -- 2017. 'La cartographie occidentale de l’océan Indien au Moyen Âge et à la Renaissance : une évolution non linéaire', in: Didier Marcotte (ed), Méditerranée et océan Indien. Deux mondes en miroir. Topoi Supplément 15 (2017), pp.183-205.
    -- 2017. 'Un portulan illustré de cartes à la Renaissance, le manuscrit français 2794 de la Bibliothèque nationale de France', in Nathalie Bouloux, Anca Dan & Georges Tolias (eds), Orbis disciplinae: Hommages en l’honneur de Patrick Gautier Dalché (Turnhout: Brepols, 2017), pp.731-53.
    -- 2014. 'Ports of Western India in latin cartographic sources, 13th-16th c. Toponimy, localisation and evolution', in: Marie-Françoise Boussac (et al. eds), Ports of the Ancient Indian Ocean, (Delhi: Primus Books, 2016) pp.179-98.
    -- 2014. 'Décrire et illustrer les ports de la Méditerranée et de l'Atlantique (début du XVIe siècle)', Cahiers électroniques d’histoire textuelle du LAMOP [CEHTL], 7 (2014: 59-91). [About a portolan text, beginning 16th century, BnF Ms.Français 2794, showing 'an innovative use of both texts and maps to describe maritime space of the Mediterranean', compared to Pierre Garcie's Routier de la mer.] [Also Here.]
    -- 2014. 'Géographie et stratégies dans les projets de croisade, XIIIe-XVe siècle', in: Jacques Paviot (ed.), Les projets de croisade: Géostratégie et diplomatie européenne du XIVe au XVIIe siècle. Série "Croisades Tardives", vol. 1 (Toulouse: Mirail, 2014), pp.125-50.
    -- 2013(a). 'Cartographier les ports de l’Orient au Moyen Âge', in: Sandrine Lavaud & Burghart Schmidt (eds) Représenter la ville (Bordeaux, Ausonius, 2012), pp. 23-37.
    -- 2013(b). 'Mesurer la Terre sainte. Mesures de l’espace et cartographie de l’Orient latin, du IXe au XVe siècle', Mesure et histoire médiévale. XLIIIe Congrès de la SHMESP (Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 2013), pp. 293-309.
    -- 2013(c). 'Cartographie marine au Moyen Age: une représentation de l'espace maritime', in: Patrick Gautier Dalché (ed.), La Terre. Connaissance représentations, mesure. L'Atelier du médiéviste 13 (Turnhout: Brepols, 2013), pp.443-503.
    -- 2013(d). Cartographie et représentations occidentales de l'Orient méditerranéen, du milieu du XIIIe à la fin du XVe siècle. Terrarum Orbis, 11. (Turnhout: Brepols, 2013).
    -- 2012(a). 'Comment localiser l’Éthiopie? La confrontation des sources antiques et des témoignages modernes au XVe siècle', Annales d'Ethiopie 27 (2012): 21-48.
    -- 2012(b). 'Les cartes portulans et l'océan Indien', La Géographie (2008): terre des hommes, 1547 (Paris: Société de Géographie, 2012): 20-27.
    -- 2011. 'Les rivages africains de l’Océan Indien: Cartographies occidentales du XIVe au XVIe siècle', in: Vincent Hiribarren & Robin Seignobos (eds), 'Cartographier l'Afrique: Construction, transmission et circulation des savoirs géographiques du Moyen-Age au XIXe siècle', Cartes et géomatique 210 (2011): 63-77. [Proceedings of the conference at the Bibliothèque nationale de France in December 2011.]
    -- 2007(a). 'Cartographies et représentations occidentales de l’Orient méditerranéen (du milieu du XIIIe siècle à la fin du XVe siècle)', Doctoral thesis, Paris I (Panthéon-Sorbonne), November 2007.
    -- 2007(b). 'Cartes marines et réseaux à la fin du Moyen Âge', in: Espaces et Réseaux en Méditerranée (VIe- XVIe siècle). Vol. I. D. Coulon, C. Picard, D. Valérian (eds): La configuration des réseaux (Paris: Editions Bouchène, 2007), pp. 293-308.
    -- 2006. 'Cartographie d’une ville disparue: Vicina sur le Danube', Revue de la Bibliothèque nationale de France 24 (2006): 6-11). (Illustrating the Dulcert [Dulceti] chart (1339), the Vallseca chart (1447) and the late 15th-century Catalan chart (respectively: Census 13, 17, 21)). Italian translation: 'Miraggio sul Danubio: Vicina, la città scomparsa', Charta geographica 88, 1 (2006): 32-7.
    -- 2005. 'Un atlas retrouvé de Grazioso Benincasa : cartographie marine à la fin du XVe siècle d’après les collections de la Bibliothèque nationale de France', in 'Cartographier la mer'. Le Monde des Cartes. Revue du Comité français de Cartographie 184 (June 2005): 12-22. [About Census 9, the 1467 Benincasa atlas formerly in Nogent-sur-Marne.]
    -- 2002. 'Les fleuves dans les cartes médiévales: l'exemple du Nil', Itineraria 1 (2002): 207-35.
    -- see also under Hofmann

Vagnon[-Chureau], Emmanuelle & Catherine Hofmann. 'Introduction', Cartes et géomatique, 216 (June 2013): 9-13 (introduction to the proceedings of the international conference, 'D'une technique à une culture: les cartes marines du XIIIe au XVIIIe siècle', Paris 3 December 2012).

Vagnon[-Chureau], Emmanuelle & Ingrid Houssaye-Michienzi. 'Cartographie commerciale et circulations marchandes à Majorque au XVe siècle', in Françoise Richer-Rossi & Stéphane Patin (ed. Michel Houdiard) Centres pluriculturels et circulation des savoirs (XVe-XXIe siècles) (Université Paris Diderot, 2015), pp.27-44.
    -- see also under Houssaye-Michienzi

Vagnon[-Chureau], Emmanuelle & Éric Vallet. La fabrique de l'océan Indien: Cartes d'Orient et d'Occident (Antiquité-XVIe siècle) (Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 2016).

Valerio, Vladimiro. Sicilia 1477-1861. La collezione Spagnolo-Palermo in Quattro secoli di cartografia (edited with Santo Spagnolo). 2 volumes (Naples, 2014).
    -- 2007. 'Geometria euclidea per la navigazione. Origine e uso della raxon de marteloio', in: Ilaria Luzzana Caraci & Annalisa D'Ascenzo (eds), Mundus novus. Amerigo Vespucci e la sua eredita (Genoa: Brigati, 2007), pp.143-62.

Van Duzer, Chet. 2021. The Cartographer Sets Sail: Eyewitness Records and Early Modern Maps, Culture & History Digital Journal, 10 (2) (Decembeer 2021) [Examining 'early nautical charts and isolarii, or island books illustrated with maps, for evidence that indicates the maps were made on the basis of first-hand observation by the cartographer'.]
    -- 2017. 'Nautical Charts, Texts, and Transmission: The Case of Conte di Ottomano Freducci and Fra Mauro', BLJ (formerly the British Library Journal), Article 6, 2017, (65 pages). [Also here. In addition, see above under Licini, Patrizia (2020] for comments on this article.]
    -- 2015. 'Guía de los monstruos marinos en los mapas medievales y renacentistas', in: Inmaculada Camarero Castellano & María Mercedes Delgado Pérez (eds), Al-Andalus hoy: siente estudios y un contexto (Seville: Alfar, 2015), pp.147-57.
    -- 2013. 'Hic sunt dracones: The Geography and Cartography of Monsters', in: Asa Simon Mittman (ed.) The Ashgate Research Companion to Monsters and the Monstrous (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2013), pp.387-435.
    -- 2012. Sea Monsters on Medieval and Renaissance Maps (London: British Library, 2012). [Discussing and illustrating the creatures on a number of portolan charts, pp.40-52.] [A German translation, with illustrations, was mounted on Academia, March 2015.]
    -- 2011. 'Rebasando los Pilares de Hércules: El Estrecho de Gibraltar en la cartografía histórica', in: Virgilio Martínez Enamorado (ed.), I Congreso Internacional : escenarios urbanos de al-Andalus y el Occidente musulmán : Vélez-Málaga, 16-18 de junio de 2010 (Málaga : Iniciativa Urbana "De toda La Villa", 2011), pp.257-92.
    -- 2009. 'Floating Islands Seen at Sea: Myth and Reality', Anuário do Centro de Estudos de História do Atlântico 1 (2009): 110-120.

Varela, J. 'La cartografía mallorquina: Cresques y su mapa de 1375', Cartografía medieval hispánica (Madrid: R. Sociedad Geográfica, 2009) pp.135-52.

Vázquez, Luis Blanco. 'El establecimiento hispano africano de Santa Cruz de Mar Pequeña y su aparición en la cartografía náutica portuguesa de finales del siglo xv' [The African Hispanic establishment of Santa Cruz de Mar Pequeña and its appearance in the Portuguese nautical cartography of the end of the 15th century], Anuario de Estudios Atlánticos, 64 (2018): 1-15. [Santa Cruz de Mar Pequeña was a Spanish settlement in south-west Morocco, acquired in 1476.]

Ventura, Antonio. 2001. Immagini di Puglia: portolani, carte nautiche, carte geografiche, platee, cabrei, mappe catastali, vedute, progetti urbanistici (Cavallino di Lecce: Capone, 2001).
    -- 1997. Immagini del Sud: portolani, carte nautiche, carte geografiche, platee, cabrei, mappe catastali, vedute (Cavallino di Lecce: Capone, 1997).

Vernet-Ginés, Juan. 'The Maghreb Chart in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana', Imago Mundi 16 (1962): 1-16 (including, pp.6-16, the complete Arabic toponymy of the chart, which covers the western half of the usual area - Census 89).

Verrier, Frédérique (ed.) Voyages en Afrique Noire d'Alvise ca'da Mosto 1455 et 1456. Relations traduites de l'italien (Paris: Chandeigne, 1994, reissued 2003).

Versi, Pietro de - see Conterio

Viola, Mario. Portolani (Ragusa: Libroitaliano, 1994).

Vogel, Klaus Anselm. 'Fra' Mauro liber den Raum ausserhalb der Karte. Die Grenzen geographischen Wissens und die Rückseite der Okumene', in: Ingrid Baumgärtner & Piero Falchetta (eds), Venezia e la nuova 'oikoumene'. Cartografia del Quattrocento / Venedig und die neue 'Oikoumene'. Kartographie im 15. Jahrhundert (Rome, Venice: Centro Tedesco di Studi Veneziani, 2016), pp.115-32 (?).

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Wacha, Heather & Jacob Levernier, 'Cartography and Code: Incorporating Automation in the Exploration of Medieval Mappaemundi', Digital Medievalist, 12(1) (2019) [Describing and demonstrating 'veccompare', a digital tool for comparing text, e.g. toponymy].

Wagner, Hermann. 'Das Rätsel der Kompasskarten im Lichte der Gesamtentwicklung der Seekarten', in Wolfgang Köberer (ed.), Das Rechte Fundament der Seefahrt. Deutsche Beiträge zur Geschichte der Navigation (Hamburg, 1982) pp.18-34.

Wallis, Helen M. 'Is the Paris Map the long-sought chart of Christopher Columbus', The Map Collector 58 (1992): 20-1. (Census 10).

Wallis, Helen M. & Arthur H. Robinson. Cartographical Innovations (Map Collector Publications, 1987) pp.12-17 ('Portolan charts', and under the various sub-headings).

Warner, Thomas A. 'The Compasso-Rizo family of portolans and the 13th century revolution in navigation'. [A presentation at the Society for the History of Discoveries annual meeting, 14 November 2020 (via Zoom).]

Waters, David W. 1994. 'The originality of the portuguese development of oceanic navigation in the XIVth and XVth centuries', I simpósio de história marítima: as navegações portuguesas no Atlântico e o descobrimento da América. Dezembro de 1992 (Lisbon, 1994) pp. 71-97. ('A revised and amplified version of 'Columbus's Portuguese inheritance', Mariners Mirror 78, 4 (1992): 385-405'). ("Between 1370 and 1375 Portuguese pilots discovered magnetic variation", and the Catalan Atlas incorporated "hydrographic proof of magnetic variation, and of equal altitude navigation" - pp. 86 & 89).
    -- 1989. 'The intellectual challenge of oceanic navigation in the XVth century', Congresso Internacional Bartolomeu Dias e sua época: Actas: Navegações na segunda metade do século XV (Porto: Universidade do Porto, 1989), II: 153-5.

[Weiss, Thomas A. 'MapAnalyst and Geographic Information Systems: Keys to unlocking new paths of research in the history of cartography. Utility and aesthetic: the function and subjectivity of two fifteenth century portolan charts', The Portolan: Journal of the Washington Map Society 86 (Spring 2013): 10-35.] [Despite the title, this is concerned only with 18th-century maps of North America.]

Whitfield, Peter. 1998. 'Portolan reflections: sea charts through the centuries', Mercator's World 3,6 (Nov-Dec 1998): 16-23.
    -- 1996. The charting of the oceans: ten centuries of maritime maps (London: British Library, 1996). (Reproducing, pp.18-21, Census 49 & 50 [B.Isles & SW Europe] and the whole of Census 48).

Whittington, Karl. Body-Worlds. Opicinus de Canistris and the Medieval Cartographic Imagination. Studies and Texts. 186. (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2014). [Also available from Brepols in Turnhout, Belgium.]

Wigal, Donald. Historic Maritime Maps Used for Historic Exploration 1290-1699 (New York: Parkstone Press, 2000). [Not seen but apparently refers to the Lyons Vesconte atlas (Census 7).]

Winter, Heinrich. 'A Late Portolan Chart at Madrid and Late Portolan Charts in General', Imago Mundi 7 (1950): 37-46. [Including, p.38, 'Compass-roses: their national characteristics'.]

Wittmann, Kevin Rodríguez. 2021. 'El imaginario oceánico. Las islas del Atlántico meridional en los mappaemundi medievales (siglos IX-XIV)' (elements summarising the doctoral thesis, Universidad de La Laguna, May 2021).
    -- 2018. 'Las Islas Afortunadas como frontera hacia lo desconocido. Un estudio desde la cartografía medieval', Vegueta. Anuario de la Facultad de Geografía e Historia1 8, (2018): 233-55
    -- 2016. 'Closest to Where the Sun Sets: The Fortunate Islands and the Limits of the World in Medieval Geography and Cartography', in: Hannah Piercy, et al. (eds),Darkness and illumination: the pursuit of knowledge in the medieval and early modern world. Proceedings of the 2015 MEMSA Student Conference, pp.63-80.
    -- 2016. Las islas del fin del mundo. Representación de las Afortunadas en los mapas del Occidente medieval (Universidad de La Laguna & Universitat de Lleida, 2016).
    -- 2015. 'Descubriendo el velo. El recuerdo medieval de las Afortunadas en los portulanos mediterráneos del XIV', Revista de Historia Canaria, 197 (2015): 237-61.
    -- 2014. 'Las Islas Imaginadas. Representación iconográfica del archipiélago canario en la cartografía del Occidente medieval', in: Jesús Brufal Sucarrat (ed.) Nuevas aportaciones de jóvenes medievalistas. Lleida 2014 (Murcia, Universidad de Lérida-Centro de Estudios Medievales de la Universidad de Murcia-SEEM, 2014), pp.119-33.
        [For further publications on the Canary Islands see his academia page.]

Woodward, David. 'Medieval Mappaemundi', in: J.B. Harley & David Woodward (eds), The History of Cartography. Volume 1 (University of Chicago Press, 1987), pp. 286-369 [available online in pdf format since June 2011].

Zevakin, E.S. & N.A. Pencko. 'Ricerche sulla storia delle colonie genovesi nel Caucaso occidentale nei seccoli XIII-XV', Miscellanea di studi Storici 1 [Collana storica di fonti e studi, 1] (Genoa: Fratelli Bozzi, 1969), pp.9-98.

Zorzi, Marino (ed.). Biblioteca Marciana - Venezia (Florence: Nardini, 1988). [Brief notes and illustrations of the Combitis/Corbitis Atlas (p.111, Pl.LV) and the 1436 Bianco atlas (pp.127-9, Pl. LXIX-LXX - not the charts) (Census 117 & 112).]

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