NOTE: German and French abstracts are given in the printed volume
ISIDORE, OROSIUS AND THE
BEATUS MAP, by JOHN WILLIAMS
Beatus of Liébana's Commentary on the Apocalypse (Spain, 776) drew heavily on Tyconius' Commentary (North Africa, late fourth century), which is a probable source for the world map Beatus used to show the apostolic dissemination of the Faith. A map based on Orosius' Historiarum adversus paganos libri VII (Seven Books of History against the Pagans) is another possible model for Beatus' map, and it would have differed only slightly from one following Isidore of Seville's Etymologiae. Surviving maps in Beatus Commentaries incorporate features from both sources. One notable feature from Isidore is an interior ocean separating a `fourth continent' from the usual three parts of the ecumene. Contrary to common interpretation, this fourth part represents not an antoecumenical hemisphere but the southernmost zone of the inhabited world. Although the map in the Beatus codex now in Burgo de Osma (dated 1086) is usually recognised as the best witness to the original Beatus map, that in Morgan 644 (dated 940) may provide a more reliable guide.
THE SAWLEY MAP AND OTHER WORLD MAPS IN
TWELFTH-CENTURY ENGLAND, by P. D. A. HARVEY
The misnamed `Henry of Mainz' world map of the late twelfth or early thirteenth century comes from Sawley Abbey, Yorkshire, but was probably drawn either at Durham Cathedral Priory or from a Durham exemplar. In this note, the map is set into the context of recent work on the manuscript volume containing the map and on the text it accompanies. The evidence for other world maps in twelfth-and early thirteenth-century England is examined, and it is shown how the words mappa mundi in a booklist do not necessarily mean a map.
JOHN NORDEN (C.1547-1625): ESTATE SURVEYOR,
TOPOGRAPHER, COUNTY MAPMAKER AND DEVOTIONAL WRITER, by FRANK
This paper examines John Norden's career as a surveyor, places his maps and other topographical work in this context, and describes his long struggle for patronage -- the key to official position in the England of Elizabeth I and James I. Norden finally gained positions under these monarchs and became a trusted servant to the Earl of Salisbury and senior surveyor to the Duchy of Cornwall. His devotional writing is also reviewed as a counterpoint to his work as a surveyor.
TWO IRANIAN WORLD MAPS FOR FINDING THE
DIRECTION AND DISTANCE TO MECCA, by DAVID A. KING
Two Islamic brass scientific instruments, each bearing a map of the world for finding the direction and distance to Mecca, have come to light since 1989. They both appear to date from Safavid Iran, possibly from the late seventeenth century. Each is a copy of a different earlier map of the same kind, and both these derive from a more elaborate prototype. They are the only known surviving Islamic world maps with localities properly marked on a competently drawn coordinate grid. Serious activity in mathematical cartography, including the preparation of detailed world maps, is known to have started in Baghdad in the ninth century, and it is likely that the highly sophisticated cartographic grids on the Safavid world maps were first developed several centuries before these two maps were made.
A PAPIER-MÂCHÉ RELIEF MAP: THE
`BOCHO-DOZU' FROM THE EDO ERA IN JAPAN, by
A huge papier-mâché relief map of the old provinces of Suo and Nagato (now Yamaguchi) in Japan was created in the middle of the eighteenth century by Kisota Arima, an official cartographer for the Hagi-han (clan). The relief model, or `Bocho-dozu', consists of seventeen main blocks and more than one hundred separate island blocks. It is probably the largest relief map made during the Edo Era, and represents the culmination of Kisota's life's work.
THE ENVIRONS MAP: VIENNA AND ITS
SURROUNDINGS C.1600-C.1850, by JAN MOKRE
Maps showing a town together with its surroundings form a distinctive, if diverse, genre, the environs map. Such maps can be described according to function or intended use and include military, administrative, judicial, economic and communications maps as well as maps associated with the development of recreation and with local improvement projects. In this paper, attention is focused on two types of environs maps from Vienna: those showing projected hydrological schemes and those prepared primarily for use in connection with recreational facilities for the townsfolk.
A PROGRAMME FOR MAP PUBLISHING: THE HOMANN
FIRM IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY, by MARKUS HEINZ
As the most important specialized enterprise in eighteenth-century Germany, the Homann map printing firm affords a good case for an investigation of the factors underlying map production. Commercial success seems to have rested on the production of maps which made a political statement as well as presenting geographical and topographical information. Publication of maps concerning specific events, such as sieges, or based on new surveys had no chance of success until the publishing firm had achieved commercial stability with its basic stock of maps.
CARTOGRAPHY IN THE SERVICE OF REFORM POLICY
IN LATE ABSOLUTIST BAVARIA, c.1750-1777, by DANIEL SCHLÖGL
Three cartographical enterprises were connected with the reform policy of the Bavarian government in the second half of the eighteenth century: the road mapping project of 1752; the mapping ambitions of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences (1761-1776); and the production of a group of customs maps (1764-1768). Both the Strassendirektion's and the Academy's projects should be regarded as initial steps towards a completely new survey of Bavaria -- the first since Philipp Apian produced his map in the sixteenth century -- and as clearing the way for modern Bavarian cartography from 1801. The last is a special case of thematic mapping with a legal character. The period merits further study because it sheds light on the correlation between cartography and an enlightened reform policy.
MAPPING BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA: THE CASE OF
G.S.G.S. 2230, by ELRI LIEBENBERG
The Topographical Survey of the Orange Free State, executed by the British War Office between 1905 and 1911, was not only one of the first but also one of the finest topographical surveys to be undertaken in British colonial Africa. The motivation for this undertaking stemmed from three sources: the personal interest of Sir David Gill (H.M. Astronomer at the Cape) in the measurement of the arc of the 30th meridian; Britain's imperialistic intervention in South Africa which resulted in the South African War (1899-1902) against the Boer Republics and which stressed the need for reliable military maps for warfare as well as for the general defence of the new colonies; and the need for accurate maps for purposes of colonial administration and land tenure. The survey took five and a half years to complete, and the 1:125,000 series (G.S.G.S. 2230) that was compiled represented the only accurate maps of this part of the continent for almost seven decades.
THE PRESIDENT'S GLOBE, by ARTHUR H.
In 1942 the United States Office of Strategic Services (OSS) Map Division compiled the map for a 50-inch globe that was to be given to President Roosevelt by Colonel William J. Donovan, the OSS Director. Instead, acting on a suggestion by General Dwight D. Eisenhower, General George C. Marshall arranged to have one of the large globes presented to Prime Minister Winston Churchill and another to President Roosevelt as 1942 Christmas gifts from the Army. Ultimately, the Weber Costello Company of Chicago Heights, Illinois, produced some twelve or fifteen copies of the President's Globe between 1942 and 1955 when the company ceased operation. Churchill's globe is now at Chartwell and Roosevelt's is at the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library. The story of these globes is based on the the recollection of the author, who was involved in the map making.
THE PRESIDENT'S MAP CABINET, by JOHN B.
The entry of the United States of America into the Second World War produced an urgent need for maps, especially in government and military circles. The National Geographic Society made a number of its publications available and scarcely two weeks after Pearl Harbor presented President Roosevelt with a specially designed map cabinet, accommodating 24 maps on 19 rollers with 15 or more map gazetteers. Roosevelt later asked for one for the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill as a personal gift.
THE PRIME MINISTER'S GLOBE AND MAP CABINET,
by CHRISTOPHER BOARD AND CATHERINE DELANO SMITH
[A footnote to the above two articles, based on a visit to Chertwell to report on the present state of the globe and the map cabinet given to Winston Churchill]